excerpts from the book

The Naked Capitalist

a review and commentary on Carroll Quigley's book Tragedy and Hope

by W. Cleon Skousen

Buccaneer Books, 1970, hardcover


During the past two centuries when the peoples of the world were gradually winning their political freedom from the dynastic monarchies, the major banking families of Europe and America were actually reversing the trend by setting up new dynasties of political control through the formation of international financial combines.

These banking dynasties had learned that all governments must have sources of revenue from which to borrow in times of emergency. They had also learned that by providing such funds from their own private resources, they could make both kings and democratic leaders tremendously subservient to their will. It had proven to be a most effective means of controlling political appointments and deciding political issues.

Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p51

In time the [banker families] brought into their banking network the provincial banking centers, organized as commercial banks and savings banks, as well as insurance companies, to form all of these into a single financial system on an international scale which manipulated the quantity and flow of money so that they were able to influence, if not control, governments on one side and industries on the other.

Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p51-52

The greatest of these dynasties were the descendants of Meyer Amschel Rothschild (1743-1812) of Frankfort, whose male descendants, for at least two generations, generally married first cousins or even nieces. Rothschild's five sons, established at branches in Vienna, London, Naples, and Paris, as well as Frankfort, cooperated together in ways which other international banking dynasties copied but rarely excelled...

The names of some of these [other] banking families are familiar to all of us and should be more so. They include Baring, Lazard, Erlanger, Warburg, Schroder, Selingman, the Speyers, Mirabaud, Mallet, Fould, and above all Rothschild and Morgan.

In studying the global conspiracy it is important to keep in mind that it was not any particular race or religion but the "passion for money and power" which has drawn the tycoons of world finance into a tightly-knit, mutual-aid society.

Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p52

They remained different from ordinary bankers in distinctive ways: (1) they were cosmopolitan and international; (2)they were close to governments and were particularly concerned with questions of government debts . . . (3) their interests were almost exclusively in bonds and very rarely in goods... (4) they were, accordingly, fanatical devotees of deflation . . . (5) they were almost equally devoted to secrecy and the secret use of financial influence in political life. These bankers came to be called 'international bankers' and, more particularly, were known as 'merchant bankers' in England, 'private bankers' in France, and 'investment bankers' in the United States.

Reginald McKenna, 1924 - had been British Chancellor of the Exchequer 1915-1916

I am afraid the ordinary citizen will not like to be told that the bankers can, and do, create money . ... And they who control the credit of the nation direct the policy of Government hold in the hollow of their hands the destiny of the people.

Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p71-72

This period, 1884-1933, was the period of financial capitalism in which investment bankers moving into commercial banking and C insurance on one side and into railroading and heavy industry on the other were able to mobilize enormous wealth and wield enormous economic, political and social power. Popularly known as 'Society,' or '400' they lived a life of dazzling splendor.

... The structure of financial controls created by the tycoons of 'Big Banking' and 'Big Business' in the period 1880-1933 was of extraordinary complexity, one business fief being built on another, both being allied with semi-independent associates, the whole rearing upward into two pinnacles of economic and financial power, of which one, centered in New York, was headed by J. P. Morgan and Company, and the other, in Ohio, was headed by the Rockefeller family. When these two cooperated, as they generally did, they could influence the economic life of the country to a large degree and could almost control its political life, at least on the Federal level.

... In 1930, one corporation (American Telephone and Telegraph, controlled by Morgan) had greater assets than the total wealth in twenty-one states of the Union.

The influence of these business leaders was so great that the Morgan and Rockefeller groups acting together, or even Morgan acting alone, could have wrecked the economic system of the country.

dynastic "banker families" in England had established their monopoly control over finance by setting up the Bank of England as a privately controlled institution which had the appearance of an official government institution. Similar centers of financial control had been set up in France, Germany, Italy and Switzerland. Many of these European banking families had intermarried or bought their way into the American banking dynasties so it was inevitable that eventually the same device for centralized control would be set up in the United States as that which had worked so well in various European countries. The formula called for a scheme which would look like the government was taking over when in reality, the control would be solidified in the same secret group which had always held it.

Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley

Serano S. Pratt in his book entitled, The Work of Wall Street, p340

When we speak in Wall Street of the 'private bankers,' we refer to a handful of great banking houses whose operations are on an international scale and which in the United States represent the same power that the Rothschilds have so long possessed in Europe. These houses may, like J. P. Morgan & Co., and Brown Bros. & Co., be closely allied by partnership ties to other powerful firms in other cities; and represent here the great firms and institutions of Europe, just as August Belmont & Co. have long represented the Rothschilds.

By the turn of the century, the Rockefellers had also joined the dynastic banking families. John D. Rockefeller had purchased the Chase Bank and his brother William bought the National City Bank of New York. The Rockefeller Chase Bank was later merged with the Warburg's Manhattan Bank to form Chase-Manhattan, the most powerful financial combine in the world today.

The scheme to set up a privately-controlled Federal Reserve System was supported by all of these dynastic banking families.

It was decided that the Republican Party was too closely connected j with Wall Street and the only hope of getting a central bank adopted would be to get the Democrats in power and have a new bill introduced which would be promoted into popular acceptance by claiming that it was a measure designed to strip Wall Street of its power. The Wall Street cadre thereupon set forth to achieve this in the presidential election of 1912.

At first this looked virtually impossible, because President William Howard Taft (a Republican who had opposed the Aldrich Bill) was very popular and seemed a sure-fire bet for re-election. The picture changed when the former President Teddy Roosevelt (also a Republican but opposed to Taft) decided to run on the Progressive Party ticket against Taft. The Democrats then nominated Woodrow Wilson, making it a three-way race. Suddenly the central bank promoters saw the opportunity they needed.

Ferdinand Lundberg

As soon as Roosevelt signified that he would again challenge Taft, the President's defeat was inevitable. Throughout the three-cornered fight Roosevelt had Munsey and Perkins constantly at his heels, supplying money, going over his speeches, bringing people from Wall Street in to help, and, in general, carrying the entire burden of the campaign against Taft.

Perkins and J. P. Morgan and Company were the substance of the Progressive Party; everything else was trimming.

The idea was to give Roosevelt enough support to divide Taft's Republican vote and give Wilson enough support to beat them both. This strategy worked, and Wilson was elected.

To prevent opponents of Wall Street from identifying the Federal Reserve Act with the international bankers, a smoke-screen of opposition was fulminated.

Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p213

William McAdoo, Woodrow Wilson's Secretary of the Treasury, in his autobiography

Bankers fought the Federal Reserve legislation - and ever provision of the Federal Reserve Act - with the tireless energy of men fighting a forest fire.

It was December 22, 1913, that the Federal Reserve Act passed the House of Representatives by a vote of 298 to 60 and the Senate passed it by a majority of 43 to 25.

The operation of the Federal Reserve System is one of the most interesting and mysterious combines in the country. Since it was founded in 1913 it has successfully resisted every attempt to conduct an audit of its affairs. The system consists of 12 "National Banks" but the only one of any significance is the one in New York. The New York bank has always been managed by someone completely congenial to the interests of the international bankers. It is important to realize that the Federal Reserve System is not a bona fide Government agency. Technically the stock is owned by the 12 National Banks which receive a dividend of six percent each year. Any profits from the System are supposed to be turned over to the U.S. Treasury, In fact, the President appoints the seven members of the Federal Reserve Board for fourteen year terms, but in spite of all this window dressing the Federal Reserve Board is completely independent in its decisions.

The mammoth and secret operations of the Federal Reserve are therefore proceeding along the lines which ... the international bankers were determined to achieve. They intended to use the financial power of Britain and the United States to force all the major countries to operate "through central banks free from all political control, with all questions of international finance to be settled by agreements by such central banks without interference from governments.

The U. S. presently owes more money (most of it to the international banking institutions) than all the money owed by the rest of the nations in the world combined.

Those who are appointed to the key positions in the U. S. Federal Reserve System (where loans are negotiated and interest rates fixed) occupy possibly the most critically influential spot in the entire world.

Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p324

Nothing less than to create a world system of financial control in private hands able to dominate the political system of each country and the economy of the world as a whole. This system was to be controlled in a feudalist fashion by the central banks of the world acting in concert, by secret agreements arrived at in frequent private meetings and conferences.... Each central bank ... sought to dominate government by its ability to control Treasury loans, to manipulate foreign exchanges, to influence the level of economic activity in the country, and to influence cooperative politicians by subsequent economic rewards in the business world.

Ferdinand Lundberg

In practice the Federal Reserve Bank of New York became the fountainhead of the system of twelve regional banks, for New York was the money market of the nation. The other eleven banks were so many expensive mausoleums erected to salve the local pride and quell the Jacksonian fears of the Hinterland. Benjamin Strong ... president of the Bankers Trust Company [Morgan], was selected as the first Governor of the New York Reserve Bank. An adept in high finance, Strong for many years manipulated the country's monetary system at the discretion of directors representing the leading New York banks. Under Strong the Reserve System, unsuspected by the nation, was brought into interlocking relations with the Bank of England and the Bank of France.

In spite of their power, these secret centers of control are seldom in dictatorial positions where they can actually take direct, decisive political action; but their financial stranglehold on the world allows them to influence and manipulate the affairs of various nations to an amazing degree and to suit their own purposes.

There is a growing volume of evidence that the highest centers of political and economic power have been forcing the entire human race toward a global, socialist, dictatorial-oriented society. And what has been most baffling about it has been the fact that this drift toward dictatorship with its inevitable obliteration of a thousand years of struggle toward human freedom, is being plotted, promoted and implemented by the leaders of free nations and the super-rich of those nations whose positions of affluence would seem to make them the foremost beneficiaries of the free-enterprise, property-oriented, open society in which so much progress has been made.

There is a growing volume of evidence that the highest centers of political and economic power have been forcing the entire human race toward a global, socialist, dictatorial-oriented society.

... The world hierarchy of the dynastic super-rich is out to take over the entire planet, doing it with Socialistic legislation where possible, but having no reluctance to use Communist revolution where necessary.

The source book of all dictatorships is Plato's Republic.

Plato wanted a ruling class with a powerful army to keep it in power and a society completely subordinate to the monolithic authority of the rulers. He also advocated using whatever force was necessary for the wiping out of all existing government and social structure so the new rulers could begin with a "clean canvas" on which to develop the portrait of their great new society.

The upper dimensions of Plato's "ideal" society included the elimination of marriage and the family so that all the women would belong to all the men and all the men would belong to all the women. Children resulting from these promiscuous unions would be taken over by the government as soon as they were weaned and raised anonymously by the state. Plato wanted women to be required to be equal with men -to fight wars with the men and perform labor like men. There was to be selective breeding of men and women under control of the government and children considered inferior or crippled were to be destroyed. There was to be a three-level structure of society into fixed classes: the ruling class, the military class and the worker class. Plato said the people would be induced to believe a government-indoctrinated falsehood that people were born with gold, silver or copper in their souls and the rulers would determine which metal was present in the soul of each person and assign him to the appropriate class. Plato admitted all this was a falsehood but said it would facilitate the administration of affairs by the rulers because it would be taught to the people as a religious principle. Plato reserved the full blessings of communism for his ruling class. It would be there that he felt private property could be eliminated, family relations communalized, and intellectual energy devoted to determining what was good for the masses in the lower classes.

Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p130-131

[John] Ruskin spoke to the Oxford undergraduates as members of the privileged, ruling class. He told them that they were the possessors of a magnificent tradition of education, beauty, rule of law, freedom, decency, and self-discipline but that this tradition could not be saved, and did not deserve to be saved, unless it could be extended to the lower classes in England itself and to the non-English masses throughout the world. If this precious tradition were not extended to these two great majorities, the minority of upper-class Englishmen would ultimately be submerged by these majorities and the tradition lost. To prevent this, the tradition must be extended to the masses and to empire.

... Ruskin's message had a sensational impact. His inaugural lecture was copied out in longhand by one undergraduate, Cecil Rhodes, who kept it with him for thirty years. Rhodes (1853-1902) feverishly exploited the diamond and goldfields of South Africa, rose to be prime minister of the Cape Colony (1890-1896), contributed money to political parties, controlled parliamentary seats both in England and South Africa, and sought to win a strip of British territory across Africa from the Cape of Good Hope to Egypt and to join these two extremes together with a telegraph line and ultimately with a Cape-to-Cairo Railway. Rhodes inspired devoted support for his goals from others in South Africa and in England. With financial support from Lord Rothschild and Alfred Beit, he was able to monopolize the diamond mines of South Africa as DeBeers Consolidated Mines and to build up a great gold mining enterprise as Consolidated Gold Fields.

... These purposes centered on his [Rhodes] desire to federate the English-speaking peoples and to bring all the habitable portions of the world under their control. For this purpose Rhodes left part of his great fortune to found the Rhodes Scholarships at Oxford in order to spread the English ruling class tradition throughout the English-speaking world.

... Among Ruskin's most devoted disciples at Oxford were a group of intimate friends including Arnold Toynbee, Alfred (later Lord) Miler, Arthur Glazebrook, George (later Sir George) Parkin, Philip Lyttleton and Henry (later Sir Henry) Birchenough. These were so moved by Ruskin that they devoted the rest of their lives to carrying out his ideas. A similar group of Cambridge men including Reginald Baliol Brett (Lord Esher), Sir John B. Seeley, Albert (Lord) Grey, and Edmund Garrett were also aroused by Ruskin's message and devoted their lives to extension of the British Empire and uplift of England's urban masses as two parts of one project which they called 'extension of the English-speaking idea.' They were remarkably successful in these aims because England's most sensational journalist William T. Stead (1840-1912), an ardent social reformer and imperialist, brought them into association with Rhodes. This association was formally established on February 5, 1891, when Rhodes and Stead organized a secret society of which Rhodes had been dreaming for sixteen years.

... In this secret society Rhodes was to be leader; Stead, Brett (Lord Esher), and Miler were to form an executive committee; Arthur (Lord) Balfour, (Sir) Harry Johnston, Lord Rothschild, Albert (Lord) Grey, and others were listed as potential members of a 'Circle of Initiates'; while there was to be an outer circle known as the 'Association of Helpers' (later organized by Milner as the Round Table Organization).

... As governor-general and high commissioner of South Africa the period 1897-1905, Miler recruited a group of young men, chiefly from oxford and from Toynbee Hall, to assist him in organizing his administration. Through his influence these men were able to win influential posts in government and international finance and became C the dominant influence in British imperial and foreign affairs up to 1939. Under Milner in South Africa, they were known as Milner's kindergarten until 1910. In 1909-1913 they organized semi-secret groups, known as Round Table Groups, in the chief British dependencies and in the United States.

... Similar Institutes of International Affairs were established in the chief British dominions and in the United States (where it is known as the Council on Foreign Relations) in the period 1919-1927.

Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p133

The power and influence of this Rhodes-Miler group in British imperial affairs and in foreign policy since 1889, although not widely recognized, can hardly be exaggerated. We might mention as an example that this group dominated The Times from 1890 to 1912 and has controlled it completely since 1912 (except for the years 1919-1922). Because The Times has been owned by the Astor family since 1922, this Rhodes-Milner group was sometimes spoken of as the 'Cliveden Set,' named after the Astor country house where they sometimes assembled. Numerous other papers and journals have been under the control or influence of this group since 1889.

... From 1884 to about 1915 the members of this group worked valiantly to extend the British Empire and to organize it in a federal system. They were constantly harping on the lessons to be learned from the failure of the American Revolution and the success of the Canadian federation of 1867, and hoped to federate the various parts of the empire as seemed feasible, then confederate the whole of it, with the United Kingdom into a single organization. They also hoped to bring the United States into this organization to whatever degree was possible. Stead was able to get Rhodes to accept, in principle, a solution which might have made Washington the capital of the whole organization or allow parts of the empire to become states of the American Union.

Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p950-951

The American branch of this organization (sometimes called the 'Eastern Establishment') has played a very significant role in the history of the United States in the last generation . . . . By 1915 Round Table groups existed in seven countries, including England, South Africa, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, India, and a rather loosely organized group in the United States (George Louis Beer, Walter Lippmann, Frank Aydelotte, Whitney Shepardson, Thomas W. Lamont, Jerome D. Greene, Erwin D. Canham of the Christian Science Monitor, and others).

... Money for the widely ramified activities of this organization came originally from the associates and followers of Cecil Rhodes, chiefly from the Rhodes Trust itself, and from wealthy associates such as the Beit Brothers, from Sir Abe Bailey, and (after 1915) from the Astor family. Since 1925 there have been substantial contributions from the individuals and from foundations, and firms associated with other international banking fraternity, especially the Carnegie United Kingdom Trust, and other organizations associated with J. P. Morgan, the Rockefeller and Whitney families, and the associates of Lazard Brothers and of Morgan, Grenfell, and Company.

Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p951-952

At the end of the war of 1914 [WWI] became clear that the organization of this system had to be greatly extended. Once again the task was entrusted to Lionel Curtis who established, in England and each dominion, a front organization to the existing local Round Table Group. This front organization, called the Royal Institute of International Affairs, had as its nucleus in each area the existing submerged Round Table Group. In New York it was known as the Council on Foreign Relations, and was a front for J. P. Morgan and Company in association with the very small American Round Table Group.

Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p938-939

The best example of this alliance of Wall Street and Left-wing publication was The New Republic.

... The original purpose for establishing the paper [The New Republic] was to provide an outlet for the progressive Left and to guide it quietly in an Anglophile direction.

... This latter task was entrusted to a young man, only four years out of Harvard, but already a member of the mysterious Round Table Group, which has played a major role in directing England's foreign policy since its formal establishment in 1909. This new recruit, Walter Lippmann, has been from 1914 to the present, the authentic spokesman in American journalism for the Establishments on both sides of the Atlantic in international affairs.

Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p937

This group, which in the United States, was completely dominated by J. P. Morgan and Company from the 1880's to the 1930's was cosmopolitan, Anglophile, internationalist, Ivy League, eastern seaboard, high Episcopalian, and European-culture conscious. Their connection with the Ivy League colleges rested on the fact that the large endowments of these institutions required constant consultation with the financiers of Wall Street .... As a consequence of these influences, as late as the 1930's, J. P. Morgan and his associates were the most significant figures in policy making at Harvard, Columbia, and to a lesser extent Yale, while the Whitneys were significant at Yale, and the Prudential Insurance Company (through Edward D. Duffield) dominated Princeton.

Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p953

The American Branch of this 'English Establishment' exerted much of its influence through five American newspapers. (The New York Times, New York Herald Tribune, Christian Science Monitor, the ,. Washington Post, and the Boston Evening Transcript). In fact, the editor of the Christian Science Monitor was the chief American correspondent (anonymously) of The Round Table.

... There grew up in the twentieth century a power structure between London and New York which penetrated deeply into university life, the press, and the practice of foreign policy. In England the center was the Round Table Group, while in the United States it was J. P. Morgan and Company or its local ranches in Boston, Philadelphia, and Cleveland.

Dr. [Carroll] Quigley bluntly confesses that International Bankers who had set out to remake the world were perfectly confident that they could use their money to acquire the cooperation and eventual control of the Communist-Socialist conspiratorial groups. In fact, John Ruskin of Oxford had persuaded the original Rhodes-Milner Round Table Groups that the way to federate the world was along socialistic lines, i.e., by having all property, industry, agriculture, communications, transportation, education and political affairs in the hands of a small cadre of financially-controlled political leaders who would organize the world and its peoples in a way which would compel everyone to do what was good for the new, world-society.

It may seem somewhat contradictory that the very people whom Marx identified as the epitome of "Capitalism" should be conspiring with the followers of Marx to overthrow traditional Capitalism and replace it with Socialism. But the record supports the Quigley contention that this is precisely what has been happening. The reason is rather simple.

Power from any source tends to create an appetite for additional power. Power coming from wealth tends to create an appetite for political power and visa versa. It was almost inevitable that the I super-rich would one day aspire to control not only their own wealth, but the wealth of the whole world. To achieve this, they were perfectly willing to feed the ambitions of the power-hungry political conspirators who were committed to the overthrow of all existing governments and the establishments of a central world-wide dictatorship along socialist lines.

This, of course, was a risky business for the Anglo-American secret society. The super-rich were gambling on the expectation that when the violence and reconstruction had been completed by the political conspirators, the super-rich would then take over (like Plato's philosopher-kings, or ruling class), to guide mankind hopefully and compulsively into a whole new era of universal peace and universal prosperity.

... The master-planners have attempted to control the global conspiratorial groups by feeding them vast quantities of money for their revolutionary work and then financing their opposition if they seemed to be getting out of control. This policy has required the leaders of London and Wall Street to deliberately align themselves with dictatorial forces which have committed crimes against humanity in volume and severity unprecedented in history. It has required them to finance and support international intrigue by the most ruthless kind of political psychopaths. Studies show that many of these totalitarian political demagogues never would have come to power without the financial support of the super-rich. Studies further show that in many countries where the conspirators have taken over, the people would have risen up and overthrown them years ago if it had not been for the most sinister kind of depraved maneuvering behind the scenes by the agents of these wealthy master planners.

Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p954

The chief aims of this elaborate, semi-secret organization were largely commendable: to coordinate the international activities and outlooks of the English-speaking world into one (which would largely, , it is true, be that of the London group); to work to maintain peace; f to help backward, colonial, and underdeveloped areas to advance J toward stability, law and order, and prosperity.

The members of the dynastic banking families had been financing the Russian-oriented revolutionists for many years. Trotsky, in his biography, refers to some of these loans from British financiers going back as far as 1907. By 1917 the major subsidies for the revolution were being arranged by Sir George Buchanan and Lord Alfred Miler (of the Morgan-Rothschild-Rhodes confederacy). Milner ... was the founder of England's secret "Round Table" group which started the Royal Institute for International Affairs in England and the Council on Foreign Relations in the United States.

Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p938

More than fifty years ago the Morgan firm decided to infiltrate the Left-wing political movements in the United States. This was relatively easy to do, since these groups were starved for funds and eager for a voice to reach the people. Wall Street supplied both. The purpose was not to destroy, dominate, or take over but was really threefold: (1) to keep informed about the thinking of Left-wing or liberal groups; (2) to provide them with a mouthpiece so that they could 'blow off steam,' and (3) to have a final veto on their publicity and possibly on their actions, if they ever went 'radical.' There was nothing really new about this decision, since other financiers had talked about and even attempted it earlier.

Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p945

"To [JP] Morgan all political parties were simply organizations to be used, and the firm always was careful to keep a foot in all camps. Morgan himself, Dwight Morrow, and other partners were allied with the Republicans; Russell C. Leffingwell was allied with the Democrats. Grayson Murphy was allied with the extreme Right; and Thomas W. Lamont was allied with the Left.

Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p950

There does exist, and has existed for a generation, an international Anglophile network which operates, to some extent, in the way the radical right believes the communists act. In fact, this network which we may identify as The round Table Groups, has no aversion to cooperating with the Communists, or any other groups, and frequently does so.


The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR)

The Secret Society set up by Cecil Rhodes in conjunction with Rothschild, Morgan, Carnegie, Rockefeller, et al., was directed by a small highly secret Round Table Group. This secret group then set up fronts for the purposes of carrying forward its conspiratorial schemes. The United States front was called the Council on Foreign Relations.

Christian Science Monitor article, September 1, 1961

Its [Council on Foreign Relations (CFR)] roster. . . contains names distinguished in the field of diplomacy, government, business, finance, science, labor, journalism, law and education. What united so wide-ranging and disparate a membership is a passionate concern for the direction of American foreign policy,

Christian Science Monitor article, September 1, 1961

The CFR roster has a formal membership of 1,400 elite personalities carefully selected for their usefulness from all of the nation's key professions. These are screened and trained for decision-making positions in the Federal Government. The article states, "Almost half of the Council members have been invited to assume official government positions or to act as consultants at one time or another."

Harper's magazine, July, 1958, article "School For Statesmen," by CFR member, Joseph Kraft.

It [CFR} has been the seat of ... basic government decisions, has set the context for many more, and has repeatedly served as a recruiting ground for ranking officials.

CFR appointments made by President Nixon:

Henry A. Kissinger, Chief Foreign Policy Advisor.

Henry Cabot Lodge, Chief Negotiator in Paris.

Charles Yost, Ambassador to the United Nation

Arthur Burns, Chairman of Federal Reserve Board

George Ball, Foreign Policy Consultant

Robert Murphy, special consultant on international affairs

Richard P. Pederson, Exec. Sec., State Department

Alan Pifer, consultant to the President on Educational Finance

Dr. Paul McCracken, chief economic aid

Ellsworth Bunker, U. S. Ambassador to Saigon

General Andrew J. Goodpaster, chief military policy advisor

Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg, Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission

Joseph J. Sisco, Assistant Secretary of State for the Middle East and South Asia

Jacob Beam, Ambassador to the Soviet Union

Gerald Smith, Director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency

Dr. Quigley may be entirely correct in his charge that the CFR and the Global Establishment have gained such a hold on the elective process in the United States that no matter which political party goes into power, the winner is beholden to those powers to a significant degree.


The Bilderberg Group

[The Bilderberg Group conferences] ... are held each year as a international master planning conclave. They are secret and attendance is restricted to invited "guests." These turn out to be about 100 me from the top inner circle representing their four major dimensions of power: the international banking dynasties, their corporations involved in vast, international enterprises, the American tax-exempt 1 foundations, and the establishment representatives who have gained high offices in government, especially the United States government.

... Prince Bernhard convened the first of these conferences during May, 1954, at the Bilderberg Hotel in Oosterbeek, Netherlands, Ever since then the group has been called The Bilderberg Group. However, they meet at various places. The 1957 meeting was held off the coast of Georgia on St. Simons Island, not far from Jekyl Island where a secret meeting was held in 1908 to set up the format for the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank. The 1964 meetings were at Williamsburg, Va. They have also met in Canada, Turkey, Germany, England and France. All of their meetings are closed. No secretary takes notes of the speeches. No reporters sit in on the debates. And when Prince Bernhard brings down the gavel for the close of the conference, no handouts, policy statements or copies of their adopted resolutions are given to the press. The conferees depart to the four corners of the earth to carry out their adopted goals but the world is never given the slightest hint as to what has been decided.

The only press representatives in attendance have been trusted Establishment personalities such , as Arthur Hays Sulzberger, president and publisher of the New York Times...

Typical individuals who frequent these conferences include:

Joseph E. Johnson, President of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (which finances most of these conferences)

Dr. Joseph H. Retinger, Communist Poland's Charge d'Affaires in Russia who helped Prince Bernhard set up the first conference in 1954

McGeorge Bundy, former Harvard professor who became a presidential advisor and was then made President of the Ford Foundation

George W. Ball, former Under Secretary of State

Christian Herter, former Secretary of State

Dean Acheson, former Secretary of State

Dean Rusk, former Secretary of State and former President of the Rockefeller Foundation

Lester Pearson, former Prime Minister of Canada

Shepard Stone, Director of International Affairs for the Ford Foundation

Pierre-Paul Schweitzer, Managing Director of the United Nations International Monetary Fund

Dirk U. Stikker, Secretary General of NATO

Gardner Cowles, editor in chief and publisher of Look magazine and the Cowles Newspaper chain

J. William Fulbright, U.S. Senator of Arkansas

Paul G. Hoffman, U. S. chief of foreign aid

George F. Kennan, former ambassador to the Soviet Union

Paul H. Nitze, who served as Secretary of the Navy

Fritz Berg, Chairman, Federation of German Industries

Hakon Christianson, Chairman of the Board, East Asiatic Company of Denmark

Pierre Commin, Secretary of the French Socialist Party

Thomas E. Dewey, former Governor of New York and candidate for President

Jacob Javits, Republican Senator from New York

H. J. Heinz II, President of the H. J. Heinz Company

Jeane de la Garde, French Ambassador to Mexico

M. Nun Birgi, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Turkey

Imbriani Longo, Director-General, Banco Nazionale del Lavoro, of Italy

David J. McDonald, President United Steelworkers

Alex W. Menne, President Association of German Chemical industries

Don K. Price, Russian Institute, Columbia University

J. L. S. Steele, Chairman, British International Chamber of Commerce

Paul van Zeeland, former Prime Minister of Belgium

John J. McCloy, former President of the Chase-Manhattan Bank

Henry Kissinger, advisor to president Nixon, former member of the staff of CFR and an officer of the Rockefeller Fund

New World Order

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