Factual Back-Up For Fahrenheit
THE FOLLOWING IS THE LINE BY LINE
FACTUAL BACKUP FOR 'FAHRENHEIT 9/11'
[Section One covers the facts in Fahrenheit 9/11 from the 2000
election to George W. Bush's extended visit to Booker Elementary
on the morning of September 11th.]
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: Fox was the first network
to call Florida for Bush. Before that, some other networks had
called Florida for Gore, and they changed after Fox called it
o "With information provided from the Voter News Service,
NBC was the first network to project Gore the winner in Florida
at 7:48 pm. At 7:50 pm ,CNN and CBS project Gore the winner in
Florida as well." By 8:02 pm , all five networks and the
Associated Press had called Gore the winner in Florida. Even the
VNS called Gore the winner at 7:52 pm. At 2:16 am, Fox calls Florida
for Bush, NBC follows at 2:16 am. ABC is the last network to call
the Florida for Bush, at 2:20 am, while AP and VNS never call
Florida for Bush. CNN: http://www.cnn.com/2001/ALLPOLITICS/stories/02/02/
o Ten minutes after the top of the hour, network excitement
was again beginning to build. At 2:16 a.m., the call was made:
Fox News Channel, with Bush's first cousin John Ellis running
its election desk, was the first to project Florida -- and the
presidency -- for the Texas governor. Within minutes, the other
networks followed suit. "George Bush, Governor of Texas will
become the 43rd President of the United States," CNN's Bernard
Shaw announced atop a graphic montage of a smiling Bush. "At
18 minutes past two o'clock Eastern time, CNN declares that George
Walker Bush has won Florida's 25 electoral votes and this should
put him over the top."PBS: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/media/election2000/
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: The man who was in charge
of the decision desk at FOX on election night was Bush's first
cousin, John Ellis.
o "John Ellis, a first cousin of George W. Bush, ran the
network's 'decision desk' during the 2000 election, and Fox was
the first to name Bush the winner. Earlier, Ellis had made six
phone calls to Cousin Bush during the vote-counting." William
O'Rourke, "Talk Radio Key to GOP Victory," Chicago Sun-Times,
December 3, 2002.
o A Fox News consultant, John Ellis, who made judgments about
presidential 'calls' on Election Night admits he was in touch
with George W. Bush and FL Gov. Jeb Bush by telephone several
times during the night, but denies breaking any rules. CNN, November
14, 2000; http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2000/
o John Ellis, the Fox consultant who called Florida early for
George Bush, had to stop writing about the campaign for the Boston
Globe because of family 'loyalty' to Bush. CBS News, http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2000/
11/14/politics/main249357.shtml, November 14, 2000.
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: "Make sure the
chairman of your campaign is also the vote countin' woman and
that her state has hired a company that's gonna knock voters off
the rolls who aren't likely to vote for you. You can usually
tell them by the color of their skin."
o "The vote total was certified by Florida's secretary
of state, Katherine Harris, head of the Bush campaign in Florida,
on behalf of Gov. Jeb Bush, the candidate's brother." Mark
Zoller Seitz, "Bush Team Conveyed an Air of Legitimacy,"
San Diego Union-Tribune, December 16, 2000.
o The Florida Department of State awarded a $4 million contract
to the Boca Raton-based Database Technologies Inc. (subsidiary
of ChoicePoint). They were tasked with finding improperly registered
voters in the state's database, but mistakes were rampant. "At
one point, the list included as felons 8,000 former Texas residents
who had been convicted of misdemeanors." St. Petersburg Times
(Florida), December 21, 2003.
o Database Technologies, a subsidiary of ChoicePoint, "was
responsible for bungling an overhaul of Florida's voter registration
records, with the result that thousands of people, disproportionately
black, were disenfranchised in the 2000 election. Had they been
able to vote, they might have swung the state, and thus the presidency,
for Al Gore, who lost in Florida. Oliver Burkeman, Jo Tuckman,
"Firm in Florida Election Fiasco Earns Millions from Files
on Foreigners," The Guardian, May 5, 2003 http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,949709,00.html.
See also, Atlanta-Journal-Constitution, May 28, 2001.
o In 1997, Rick Rozar, the late head of the company bought
by ChoicePoint, donated $100,000 to the Republican National Committee.
Melanie Eversley, "Atlanta-Based Company Says Errors in Felon
Purge Not Its Fault," Atlanta Journal-Constitution, May 28,
2001. Frank Borman of Database Technologies Inc. has donated
extensively to New Mexico Republicans, as well as to the Presidential
campaign of George W. Bush. Opensecrets.org, "Frank Borman."
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: Gore got the most votes
o [A] consortium [Tribune Co., owner of the Times; Associated
Press; CNN; the New York Times; the Palm Beach Post; the St. Petersburg
Times; the Wall Street Journal; and the Washington Post] hired
the NORC [National Opinion Research Center, a nonpartisan research
organization affiliated with the University of Chicago] to view
each untallied ballot and gather information about how it was
marked. The media organizations then used computers to sort and
tabulate votes, based on varying scenarios that had been raised
during the post-election scramble in Florida. Under any standard
that tabulated all disputed votes statewide, Mr. Gore erased Mr.
Bush's advantage and emerged with a tiny lead that ranged from
42 to 171 votes. Donald Lambro, "Recount Provides No Firm
Answers," Washington Times, November 12, 2001.
o "The review found that the result would have been different
if every canvassing board in every county had examined every undervote,
a situation that no election or court authority had ordered. Gore
had called for such a statewide manual recount if Bush would agree,
but Bush rejected the idea and there was no mechanism in place
to conduct one." Martin Merzer, "Review of Ballots
Finds Bush's Win Would Have Endured Manual Recount," Miami
Herald, April 4, 2001.
o See also, the following article by one of the Washington
Post journalists who ran the consortium recount. The relevant
point is made in Table I of the article. http://www.aei.org/docLib/20040526_KeatingPaper.pdf
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: Congressional Black Caucus
members tried to object to the election outcome on the floor of
the House; no Senator would sign the objections.
o "While Vice President Al Gore appeared to have accepted
his fate contained in two wooden ballot boxes, Democratic members
of the Congressional Black Caucus tried repeatedly to challenge
the assignment of Florida's 25 electoral votes to Bush. More than
a dozen Democrats followed suit, seeking to force a debate on
the validity of Florida's vote on the grounds that all votes may
not have been counted and that some voters were wrongly denied
the right to vote." Susan Milligan, "It's Really Over:
Gore Bows Out Gracefully," Boston Globe, January 7, 2001.
o The Congressional Black Caucus effort failed for "lack
of the necessary signature by any senator." Sen. Minority
Leader Tom Daschle (D-SD) had previously advised Democratic senators
not to cooperate. 'They did not.'" Robert Novak, "Sweeney
Link Won't Help Chao," Chicago Sun-Times, January 14, 2001.
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: "On the day George
W. Bush was inaugurated, tens of thousands of Americans poured
into the streets of D.C. They pelted Bush's limo with eggs."
o "Shouting slogans like 'Hail to the Thief' and 'Selected,
Not Elected,' tens of thousands of protesters descended on George
W. Bush's inaugural parade route yesterday to proclaim that he
and Vice President Dick Cheney had 'stolen' the election."
Michael Kranish and Sue Kirchhoff, "Thousands Protest 'Stolen'
Election," Boston Globe, January 21, 2001.
o "Scuffles erupted between radicals and riot police while
an egg struck the bullet-proof presidential limousine as it carried
Mr. Bush and wife Laura to the White House." Damon Johnston,
"Bush Pledges Justice as Critics Throw Eggs," The Advertisers,
January 22, 2001.
o See also film footage.
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: "The inauguration
parade was brought to a halt and the traditional walk to the White
House was scrapped."
o Bush made one concession to the weather -- or to security
concerns: He stayed in his limousine nearly the entire length
of the mile-long inaugural parade, waving through a slightly foggy
window. He got out to walk only for a brief distance when his
motorcade reached the VIP grandstands in front of the Treasury
Department and the White House. Doyle McManus, et al., "Bush
Vows to Bring Nation Together," Los Angeles Times, January,
o Bush's limo, which traveled most of the route at a slow walking
pace, stopped dead just before it reached the corner of 14th St.
and Pennsylvania Ave., where most of the protesters had congregated.
Then it sped up dramatically, and Secret Service agents protecting
the car on foot had to follow at a full run. When they reached
a section of the parade route where the sidewalks were restricted
to official ticketholders, Bush and his wife, Laura, who wore
a flattering electric turquoise suit, got out of the limo to walk
and greet supporters. Helen Kennedy, "Bush Pledges a United
US," New York Daily News, January 21, 2001.
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: "For the next eight
months, it didn't get any better for George W. Bush."
o In a poll conducted September 5 to September 9, 2001, Investor's
Business Daily and the Christian Science Monitor showed President
Bush's approval rating at 45%, down from 52% in May ( Investor's
Business Daily/Christian Science Monitor Poll, conducted by TIPP,
9/5 to 9/9, 2001). Zogby's polling had Bush at 47% in late July
2001, down from 57% in February (Zogby, 7/26 to 7/29, 2001).
o In June 2001, a Wall Street Journal/NBC News poll showed
President Bush's approval rating at 50 percent, which was the
lowest presidential approval rating in five years. Richard L.
Berke, "G.O.P. Defends Bush in Face of Dip in Poll Ratings,"
The New York Times, June 29 2001
o On July 26, 2001, in an article entitled "Bush Lacks
the Ability To Force Action on Hill," Dana Milbank of the
Washington Post wrote, " It may be premature to conclude
that Bush has lost control of his agenda, but lawmakers and strategists
in both parties said that Bush's next year is much more likely
to look like the fractious month of July than like the orderly
march toward Bush's tax cut this spring. The troubles began, of
course, with Vermont Sen. James M. Jeffords' departure from the
GOP, giving control of the Senate to the Democrats. But the problems
are nearly as bad in the House, where moderates who supported
Bush's tax cut are proving recalcitrant on other issues. They
rebelled against GOP leaders on campaign finance reform and held
up Bush's "faith-based" legislation over concerns about
discrimination. Next week, they're likely to oppose Bush's proposal
to drill in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge."
o California energy crisis also took a toll on Bush's approval
ratings. Due to rolling blackouts and rising utility bills Bush's
ratings took a toll among Californians. The poll showed that
almost as many Californians disapproved of the President's job
as approved of it with an approve/disapprove of 42/40. "Calif.
Governor Says He'll Sue to Force Government Action," The
Houston Chronicle, May 30, 2001.
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: "In his first eight
months in office before September 11, George W. Bush was on vacation,
according to the Washington Post, forty-two percent of the time."
o "News coverage has pointedly
stressed that W.'s month-long stay at his ranch in Crawford is
the longest presidential vacation in 32 years. Washington Post
supercomputers calculated that if you add up all his weekends
at Camp David, layovers at Kennebunkport and assorted to-ing and
fro-ing, W. will have spent 42 percent of his presidency 'at vacation
spots or en route.'" Charles Krauthammer, "A Vacation
Bush Deserves," The Washington Post, August 10, 2001.
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: Bush relaxes at Camp
David, Kennebunkport and his ranch in Crawford Texas.
o As of April 2004, President Bush
had made 33 trips to Crawford during his presidency, bringing
his total to more than 230 days at the ranch in just over three
years. "Add his 78 trips to Camp David and five to his family's
compound at Kennebunkport, Maine, and Bush has spent all or part
of 500 days - or about 40 percent of his presidency - at one of
these his three retreats." "Bush Retreats to a Favorite
Getaway: Crawford ranch," Houston Chronicle, April 11, 2004.
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: On Sept. 10, 2001 ,
Bush joined his brother in Florida where he slept the night in
"a bed made of fine French linens."
o Bush has not been bashful about visiting Florida, ground
zero in the vote-recount battle that followed last year's election.
On this trip, he was spending a good deal of time with his brother,
Gov. Jeb Bush. " President to Push Congress on Education
in Fourth Florida Visit," Associated Press, September 10,
2001; See also, CNN Inside Politics, September 10, 2001.
o Two individuals prepared the president's room "and made
the bed with some of the family's fine French linens." Tom
Bayles, "The Day Before Everything Changed, President Bush
Touched Locals' Lives," Sarasota Herald-Tribune, September
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: "As the attack
took place, Mr. Bush was on his way to an elementary school in
Florida . When informed of the first plane hitting the World
Trade Center, where terrorists had struck just eight years prior,
Bush just decided to go ahead with his photo opportunity."
NOTE: It should be emphasized that at
the time Bush was notified of the first plane attack, he (unlike
the rest of America) was already aware that Osama bin Laden was
planning to attack America by hijacking airplanes, per the August
6, 2001 Presidential Daily Brief (PDB). He was also aware, of
course, that the World Trade Center had been historically a target
for terrorist attacks. He nonetheless went ahead with this photo
opportunity in a school full of children.
o "Mr. Bush arrived at the school, just before 9 am,
expecting to be met by its motherly principal, Gwen Rigell. Instead
he was pulled sharply aside by the familiar, bulky figure of 51-year-old
Karl Rove, a veteran political fixer and trusted aide of both
Mr. Bush and his father, George Sr. Mr. Rove, a fellow Texan with
an expansive manner and a colorful turn of phrase, told the President
that a large commercial airliner (American Flight 11) had crashed
into the North Tower of the World Trade Centre . Mr. Bush clenched
his teeth, lowered his bottom lip and said something inaudible.
Then he went into the school." William Langley, "Revealed:
What Really Went on During Bush's 'Missing Hours,'" The Telegraph,
December 16, 2001.
o "The airborne attack on the World Trade Center was at
least the second terrorist attempt to topple the landmarks. In
1993, terrorists sought to bomb one building so that it would
explode and fall into the other. The plot did not succeed, but
six people were killed and more than 1,000 injured." Cragg
Hines, "Terrorists Strike from Air; Jetliners Slam into Pentagon,
Trade Center" The Houston Chronicle, September 11, 2001.
o August 6, 2001 Presidential Daily Brief (PDB), "Bin
Ladin Determined to Strike Inside US": "Al-Qa'ida members
-- including some who are US citizens -- have resided in or traveled
to the US for years, and the group apparently maintains a support
structure that could aid attacks FBI information since that time
indicates patterns of suspicious activity in this country consistent
with preparations for hijackings or other types of attacks, including
recent surveillance of federal buildings in New York." August
6, 2001, Bin Ladin Determined to Strike Inside US, http://www.cnn.com/2004/images/04/10/whitehouse.pdf
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: "When the second
plane hit the tower, his chief of staff entered the classroom
and told Mr. Bush the nation is under attack."
o "At 9:05 a.m., the White House chief of staff, Andrew
H. Card Jr., stepped into the classroom and whispered into the
president's right ear, 'A second plane hit the other tower, and
America's under attack.'" David E. Sanger and Don Van Natta
Jr., "After The Attacks: The Events; In Four Days, A National
Crisis Changes Bush's Presidency," The New York Times, September
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: "Mr. Bush just
sat there and continued to read My Pet Goat."
o "It was while attending a second-grade reading class
at Emma E. Booker Elementary School in Sarasota, Fla., to promote
his education reforms that President Bush learned America was
under attack. In the presence of her VIP guest, teacher Sandra
Kay Daniels, 45, conducted the day's lesson, which centered on
a story about a pet goat." "9/11: A Year After,"
Los Angeles Times, September 11, 2002.
o President Bush listened to 18 Booker Elementary School second-graders
read a story about a girl's pet goat Tuesday before he spoke briefly
and somberly about the terrorist attacks. "Bush hears of
attack while visiting Booker," Sarasota Herald-Tribune, September
o See also film footage.
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: "Nearly seven minutes
passed with nobody doing anything."
o "[H]e lingered in the room for another six minutes
[after being informed of the second plane] [At] 9:12, he abruptly
retreated, speaking to Mr. Cheney and New York officials."
David E. Sanger and Don Van Natta Jr., "After The Attacks:
The Events;In Four Days, A National Crisis Changes Bush's Presidency,"
The New York Times, September 16, 2001 .
o "Mr. Bush remained in the elementary school for nearly
a half an hour after Andy Card whispered in his ear." Michael
Kranish, "Bush: US To Hunt Down Attackers," Boston Globe,
September 11, 2001.
[Section Two covers the facts
in Fahrenheit 9/11 from Bush's failure to meet with Richard Clarke,
to the August 6th memo, and ends with the Saudi flights out of
the US after 9/11.]
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: "Should he have
held at least one meeting since taking office to discuss the threat
of terrorism with his head of counterterrorism?"
o "[T]hey didn't allow me to brief him on terrorism. You
know, they're saying now that when I was afforded the opportunity
to talk to him about cybersecurity, it was my choice. I could
have talked about terrorism or cybersecurity. That's not true.
I asked in January to brief him, the president, on terrorism,
to give him the same briefing I had given Vice President Cheney,
Colin Powell and Condi Rice. And I was told, 'You can't do that
briefing, Dick, until after the policy development process.'"
Richard Clarke interview with Tim Russert on NBC's Meet the Press,
March 28, 2004.
o "Clarke asked on several occasions for early Principals
Committee meetings on these issues [outlined in his January 25,
2001 memo] and was frustrated that no early meeting was scheduled.
He wanted principals to accept that al Qaeda was a 'first order
threat' and not a routine problem being exaggerated by 'chicken
little' alarmists. No Principals Committee meetings on al Qaeda
were held until September 4, 2001." National Commission on
Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, Threats and Responses
in 2001, Staff Statement No. 8, "National Policy Coordination,"
pp 9-10; http://www.9-11commission.gov/hearings/
o See Testimony of Richard A. Clarke before the National Commission
on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, March 24, 2004:
MR. ROEMER: Okay. Let's move into, with
my 15 minutes, let's move into the Bush administration. On January
the 25th, we've seen a memo that you had written to Dr. Rice,
urgently asking for a principals review of al Qaeda. You include
helping the Northern Alliance, covert aid, significant new '02
budget authority to help fight al Qaeda --
MR. CLARKE: Uh-huh.
MR. ROEMER: -- and response to the U.S.S.
Cole. You attached to this document both the Delenda Plan of 1998
and a strategy paper from December 2000. Did you get a response
to this urgent request for a principals meeting on these, and
how does this affect your time frame for dealing with these important
MR. CLARKE: I did geta response. The
response was that in the Bush administration I should, and my
committee, the counterterrorism security group, should report
to the deputies committee, which is a sub-cabinet level committee,
and not to the principals, and that therefore it was inappropriate
for me to be asking for a principals meeting. Instead, there would
be a deputies meeting.
MR. ROEMER: So, does this slow the process
down to go to the deputies rather than to the principals or a
small group, as you had previously done?
MR. CLARKE: It slowed it down enormously,
by months. First of all, the deputies committee didn't meet urgently
in January or February. Then, when the deputies committee did
meet, it took the issue of al Qaeda as part of a cluster of policy
issues, including nuclear proliferation in South Asia, democratization
in Pakistan, how to treat the problems, the various problems,
including narcotics and other problems in Afghanistan, and, launched
on a series of deputies meetings extending over several months
to address al Qaeda in the context of all of those interrelated
issues. That process probably ended, I think, in July of 2001,
so we were readying for a principals meeting in July, but the
principals' calendar was full, and then they went on vacation,
many of them, in August, so we couldn't meet in August, and therefore
the principals met in September.
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: "Maybe Mr. Bush
was wondering why he had cut terrorism funding from the FBI."
o "This question of resources will also come up in the
commission's questioning of Attorney General John Ashcroft, who
was brand-new on the job in the fall of 2001 and on September
10th cut the FBI's request for new counterterrorism money by 12
percent." John Dimsdale, "Former FBI Director Louis
Freeh and Attorney General John Ashcroft to appear before 9/11
commission tomorrow," NPR Radio: Marketplace, April 12, 2004.
See also, 2001 budget documents including Attorney General John
Ashcroft FY 2003 budget request to Office of Management and Budget,
September 10, 2001, showing $65 million offset in the FBI budget
for counter-terrorism equipment grants: http://www.americanprogress.org/atf/cf/%7BE9245FE4-9A2B-43C7-A521-5D6FF2E06E03%7D
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: The security briefing
that was given to him on August 6, 2001, said that Osama bin Laden
was planning to attack America by hijacking airplanes.
o August 6, 2001 Presidential Daily Brief (PDB): "Al-Qa'ida
members -- including some who are US citizens -- have resided
in or traveled to the US for years, and the group apparently maintains
a support structure that could aid attacks. Two al-Qa'ida members
found guilty in the conspiracy to bomb our Embassies in East Africa
were US citizens, and a senior EIJ member lived in California
in the mid-1990s. A clandestine source said in 1998 that a Bin
Ladin cell in New York was recruiting Muslim-American youth for
attacks. We have not been able to corroborate some of the more
sensational threat reporting, such as that from a ... (redacted
portion) ... service in 1998 saying that Bin Ladin wanted to hijack
a US aircraft to gain the release of 'Blind Shaykh' 'Umar 'Abd
al-Rahman and other US-held extremists. Nevertheless, FBI information
since that time indicates patterns of suspicious activity in this
country consistent with preparations for hijackings or other types
of attacks, including recent surveillance of federal buildings
in New York." August 6, 2001, Bin Ladin Determined to Strike
Inside US, http://www.cnn.com/2004/images/
o "The Aug. 6, 2001, document, known as the President's
Daily Brief, has been the focus of intense scrutiny because it
reported that bin Laden advocated airplane hijackings, that al-Qaida
supporters were in the United States and that the group was planning
attacks here." Clarke J. Scott, "Clarke Gave Warning
on Sept. 4, 2001; Testimony Includes Apology to Families of Sept.
11 Victims, Associated Press, March 25, 2004.
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: On August 6 th, 2001,
George W. Bush went fishing.
o "President Bush swung into vacation mode Monday, fishing
for bass in his pond, strolling the canyons on his 1,600-acre
ranch, taking an early-morning run. Associated Press, "President
Bush Vacationing in Texas," August 6, 2001.
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: "Was it the guy
my daddy's friends delivered a lot of weapons to?"
o In 1995, a member of Reagan's National Security Council and
co-author of his National Security Directives, Howard Teicher,
signed a sworn affidavit stating: "From early 1982 to 1987,
I served as a Staff Member to the United States National Security
Council. In June, 1982, President Reagan decided that the United
States could not afford to allow Iraq to lose the war to Iran.
President Reagan decided that the United States would do whatever
was necessary and legal to prevent Iraq from losing the war with
Iran. Pursuant to the secret NSDD, the United States actively
supported the Iraqi war effort by supplying the Iraqis with billions
of dollars of credits, by providing U.S. military intelligence
and advice to the Iraqis, and by closely monitoring third country
arms sales to Iraq to make sure that Iraq had the military weaponry
required. This message was delivered by Vice President Bush who
communicated it to Egyptian President Mubarak, who in turn passed
the message to Saddam Hussein. Under CIA Director Casey and Deputy
Director Gates, the CIA made sure that non-U.S. manufacturers
manufactured and sold to Iraq the weapons needed by Iraq. In certain
instances where a key component in a weapon was not readily available,
the highest levels of the United States government decided to
make the component available, directly or indirectly, to Iraq.
I specifically recall that the provision of anti-armor penetrators
to Iraq was a case in point. The United States made a policy decision
to supply penetrators to Iraq." Affidavit of former Howard
Teicher, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA v. CARLOS CARDOEN et al, January
31, 1995. http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/
o "Questions have been raised about whether the United
States not only ignored foreign arms shipments to Iraq, but actually
encouraged or even arranged them. A former National Security Council
official, Howard Teicher, said in a 1995 court affidavit that
the CIA made sure Iraq received weapons from non-U.S. manufacturers."
Ken Guggenheim, "War Crimes Trial for Saddam Could Reveal
Details of Past U.S. Help," Associated Press, January 24,
o "There is ample documentation demonstrating that the
Reagan and Bush administrations supplied critical military technologies
that were put directly to use in the construction of the Iraqi
war machine. There is also strong evidence indicating that the
executive branch's failure to crack down on illegal weapons traffickers
or keep track of third party transfers of U.S. weaponry allowed
a substantial flow of U.S.-origin military equipment and military
components to make their way to Iraq." William D. Hartung,
Weapons at War; A World Policy Institute Issue Brief, May 1995.
See also, Alan Friedman, Spider's Web: The Secret History of
How the White House Illegally Armed Iraq, (Bantam Books, 1993);
Kenneth R. Timmerman, The Death Lobby: How the West Armed Iraq,
(Houghton, Mifflin, 1991).
o "Rep. Dante Fascell, D-Fla., chairman of the House Foreign
Affairs Committee, said that the United States could not 'make
a claim for purity' on arms sales, since the U.S. government has
sold weapons to Iran, Iraq 'and everybody else in the world.'"
Robert Shepard, "Congress Approves Aid for Former Soviet
Republics," United Press International, October 3, 1992.
o "A covert American program during the Reagan administration
provided Iraq with critical battle planning assistance at a time
when American intelligence agencies knew that Iraqi commanders
would employ chemical weapons in waging the decisive battles of
the Iran-Iraq war, according to senior military officers with
direct knowledge of the program. Those officers, most of whom
agreed to speak on the condition that they not be identified,
spoke in response to a reporter's questions about the nature of
gas warfare on both sides of the conflict between Iran and Iraq
from 1981 to 1988. Iraq's use of gas in that conflict is repeatedly
cited by President Bush and, this week, by his national security
adviser, Condoleezza Rice, as justification for "regime change"
in Iraq. The covert program was carried out at a time when President
Reagan's top aides, including Secretary of State George P. Shultz,
Defense Secretary Frank C. Carlucci and Gen. Colin L. Powell,
then the national security adviser, were publicly condemning Iraq
for its use of poison gas, especially after Iraq attacked Kurds
in Halabja in March 1988." Patrick E. Tyler, "Officers
Say U.S. Aided Iraq in War Despite Use of Gas," The New York
Times, August 18, 2002.
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: "Was it that group
of religious fundamentalists who visited my state when I was governor?"
o "A senior delegation from the Taleban movement in Afghanistan
is in the United States for talks with an international energy
company that wants to construct a gas pipeline from Turkmenistan
across Afghanistan to Pakistan. A spokesman for the company, Unocal,
said the Taleban were expected to spend several days at the company's
headquarters in Sugarland, Texas." "Taleban in Texas
for talks on Gas Pipeline," BBC News, December 4, 1997 (Sugarland
is 22 miles outside Houston.)
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: "Or was it the
Saudis? Damn, it was them."
o "The 27 classified pages of a congressional report about
Sept. 11 depict a Saudi government that not only provided significant
money and aid to the suicide hijackers but also allowed potentially
hundreds of millions of dollars to flow to Al Qaeda and other
terrorist groups through suspect charities and other fronts, according
to sources familiar with the document. One U.S. official who
has read the classified section said it describes 'very direct,
very specific links' between Saudi officials, two of the San Diego-based
hijackers and other potential co-conspirators 'that cannot be
passed off as rogue, isolated or coincidental.'" Of all the
hijackers, 15 of the 19 were Saudi. Josh Meyer, "Report Links
Saudi Government to 9/11 Hijackers, Sources Say," Los Angeles
Times, August 2, 2003.
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: "In the days following
September 11th , all commercial and private airline traffic was
o "On the morning of September 11th, there were 4,873
instrument flight rule (IFR) flights operating in U.S. airspace.
As soon as Secretary Mineta was aware of the nature and scale
of the terrorist attack on New York and Washington -- that we
were faced with, not one, but four possible hijackings, and several
other rumors of missing or unidentified aircraft -- the Secretary
ordered the air traffic system shut down for all civil operations.
Jane F. Garvey on Aviation Security Following the Terrorist Attack
on September 11th, September 21, 2001; http://www.faa.gov/newsroom/testimony/
2001/testimony_010921.htm; see also, "Airports to Remain
Closed, Mineta Says," Department of Transportation Press
Release, September 12, 2001
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: "The White House
approved planes to pick up the bin Ladens and numerous other Saudis."
o Fearing reprisals against Saudi nationals, the Saudi government
asked for help in getting some of its citizens out of the country.
National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States,
Threats and Responses in 2001, Staff Statement No. 10, The Saudi
Flights, p. 12; http://www.9-11commission.gov/hearings/
o "Now, what I recall is that I asked for flight manifests
of everyone on board and all of those names need to be directly
and individually vetted by the FBI before they were allowed to
leave the country. And I also wanted the FBI to sign off even
on the concept of Saudis being allowed to leave the country. And
as I recall, all of that was done. It is true that members of
the Bin Laden family were among those who left. We knew that
at the time. I can't say much more in open session, but it was
a conscious decision with complete review at the highest levels
of the State Department and the FBI and the White House."
Testimony of Richard Clarke, Former Counterterrorism Chief, National
Security Council, before The Senate Judiciary Committee, September
o "I was making or coordinating a lot of decisions on
9/11 and the days immediately after. And I would love to be able
to tell you who did it, who brought this proposal to me, but I
don't know. Since you pressed me, the two possibilities that
are most likely are either the Department of State, or the White
House Chief of Staff's Office. But I don't know." Testimony
of Richard A. Clarke before the National Commission on Terrorist
Attacks Upon the United States, March 24, 2004.
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: "At least six private
jets and nearly two dozen commercial planes carried the Saudis
and the bin Ladens out of the U.S. after September 13th. In all,
142 Saudis, including 24 members of the bin Laden family, were
allowed to leave the country."
NOTE: It should be noted that even though
the film does not make the allegation, strong evidence has recently
come to light that at least one private plane flew to pick up
Saudi nationals while private flights were still grounded. Moreover,
for nearly three years, the White House has denied that this flight
existed. This was reported in the June 9, 2004 St. Petersburg
Times article cited below.
o After the airspace reopened, six chartered flights with 142
people,mostly Saudi Arabian nationals, departed from the United
States between September 14 and 24. One flight, the so-called
Bin Ladin flight, departed the United States on September 20 with
26 passengers, most of them relatives of Usama Bin Ladin. National
Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, Threats
and Responses in 2001, Staff Statement No. 10, The Saudi Flights,
p. 12; http://www.9-11commission.gov/hearings/
o It should be noted that the US Customs and Border Protection
document released by the Department of Homeland Security under
the FOIA, Feb 24, 2004 lists 162 Saudi Nationals who flew out
of the country between 9/11/2001 and 9/15/2001, departing from
New York's Kennedy airport, Washington's Dulles, and Dallas Fort
o For an official list of Saudi Passport holders (names redacted)
who flew out of the country between 9.11.2001 - 9.15.2001, see
US Customs and Border Protection document released by the Department
of Homeland Security under the FOIA, Feb 24, 2004; http://www.judicialwatch.org/archive/
o TheSt. Petersburg Times reported on Jun 9, 2004:
o "Two days after the Sept. 11 attacks,
with most of the nation's air traffic still grounded, a small
jet landed at Tampa International Airport, picked up three young
Saudi men and left. The men, one of them thought to be a member
of the Saudi royal family, were accompanied by a former FBI agent
and a former Tampa police officer on the flight to Lexington,
Ky. The Saudis then took another flight out of the country."
o Moreover: "For nearly three years,
White House, aviation and law enforcement officials have insisted
the flight never took place and have denied published reports
and widespread Internet speculation about its purpose The terrorism
panel, better known as the 9/11 Commission, said in April that
it knew of six chartered flights with 142 people aboard, mostly
Saudis, that left the United States between Sept. 14 and 24, 2001.
But it has said nothing about the Tampa flight The 9/11 Commission,
which has said the flights out of the United States were handled
appropriately by the FBI, appears concerned with the handling
of the Tampa flight.
o "Most of the aircraft allowed
to fly in U.S. airspace on Sept. 13 were empty airliners being
ferried from the airports where they made quick landings on Sept.
11. The reopening of the airspace included paid charter flights,
but not private, nonrevenue flights." Jean Heller, "TIA
now verifies flight of Saudis; The government has long denied
that two days after the 9/11 attacks, the three were allowed to
fly." St. Petersburg Times, June 9, 2004
[Section Three covers the facts
in Fahrenheit 9/11 from Osama's relations with his family through
Bush's military records and ends with Bush's business history,
including Arbusto, Harken and the Carlyle Group.]
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: In 2001, one of Osama's
sons got married in Afghanistan; several family members attended
o "Bin Laden as well as his mother, two brothers and a
sister, who flew from Saudi Arabia, attended the wedding of one
of his sons, Mohammad, in the Afghan city of Kandahar on Monday,
the Arabic daily Al-Hayat said. Another of bin Laden's sons married
one of al-Masri's daughters in January. Al-Hayat said several
members of the bin Laden family, who run a major construction
company in Saudi Arabia, also traveled from the kingdom to attend
the wedding. Agence France Presse, "Bin Laden Full of Praise
for Attack on USS Cole at Son's Wedding", Thursday, March
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: "We held hundreds
of people" immediately after 9/11.
o "More than 1,200 foreigners have been detained as part
of the government's investigation into the terror attacks, some
spending months in prison. Some civil liberties advocates have
complained, but government officials insist they are simply enforcing
long-standing immigration laws." "A Nation Challenged,"
New York Times, November 25, 2001.
o "The Department of Homeland Security announced new rules
yesterday designed to prevent a recurrence of the lengthy detention
of hundreds of foreign nationals, many of whom were prevented
from making telephone calls or contacting lawyers for months after
they were jailed in the wake of the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks.
The guidelines, made public yesterday by Asa Hutchinson, the department's
undersecretary for border and transportation security, were welcomed
by civil rights groups that had bitterly denounced the detention
of 762 immigration violators after the attacks, based on sometimes
ill-founded FBI suspicions that they had links to terrorism.
The new rules are a response to a highly critical 198-page report
last June by Glenn A. Fine, the Justice Department's inspector
general. It concluded that in the chaotic aftermath of the terrorist
strikes on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, hundreds of
Arab and South Asian men who had committed sometimes minor immigration
violations languished in jail without timely review by U.S. officials.
Guards mistreated some of them. The average detention lasted
three months, and the longest was 10 months before the immigrants
were cleared of terrorism ties and released from jail." John
Mintz, "New Rules Shorten Holding Time for Detained Immigrants,"
Washington Post, April 14, 2004.
o "In the days, weeks and months following the tragic
events of September 11, 2001, hundreds of American immigrants
were rounded up and detained, often under harsh or abusive conditions,
in the name of keeping America safe. Not because of evidence (or
even sound hunches) that they were involved in the terrorist attacks
that brutally ended the lives of more than 3,100 people. Not because
they were found to have ties to - or even knowledge of - terrorist
groups who might threaten American security in the future. Instead,
hundreds of immigrants were arbitrarily snared in this dragnet,
marked for arrest and thrown (literally, at times) in jail. The
exact number is unknown, because the government refuses to release
that information. They had one thing in common: Almost all were
Arab or South Asian men, and almost all were Muslim... Once arrested,
many immigrants were labeled "of interest" to the September
11 investigation and thrown into legal limbo - detained for weeks
or months in connection with a criminal investigation, but denied
the due process rights that they would have been entitled to had
they actually been charged with crimes." ACLU, "America's
Disappeared: Seeking International Justice for Immigrants Detained
after September 11," January 2004.
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: The FBI conducted "a
little interview, check[ed] the passport."
Last year, the National Review reported
that the FBI conducted brief, day-of-departure interviews with
the Saudis -- in the words of an FBI spokesman, "at the airport,
as they were about to leave." Experts interviewed by the
National Review called the FBI's actions "highly unusual"
given the fact that those departing were actually members of Osama
bin Laden's family. "They [the FBI] could not have done a
thorough and complete interview," said John L.Martin, the
former head of internal security at the Justice Department. "The
Great Escape : How did assorted bin Ladens get out of America
after September 11?" National Review, September 29, 2003.
o "Thirty of the 142 people on these flights were interviewed
by the FBI, including 22 of the 26 people (23 passengers and 3
private security guards) on the Bin Ladin flight. Many were asked
detailed questions. None of the passengers stated that they
had any recent contact with Usama Bin Ladin or knew anything about
terrorist activity." National Commission on Terrorist Attacks
Upon the United States, Threats and Responses in 2001, Staff Statement
No. 10, The Saudi Flights, p. 12; http://www.9-11commission.gov/hearings/hearing10/staff_statement_10.pdf
o "I talked to several people who were with the FBI during
the actual repatriation. And they told me there was a lot of
back-and-forth between the FBI and the Saudi Embassy. And the
Saudi Embassy tried to get people to leave without even identifying
them. The FBI succeeded in identifying people and going through
their passports. But, in many cases, you had the FBI meeting people
for the first time on the tarmac or on the planes themselves as
they were departing. That was not time for a serious interview
or a serious interrogation." Interview with Craig Unger,
CNN, September 4, 2003.
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: White House released
records in response to Moore's charge of deserter.
o Left-leaning filmmaker Michael Moore got the discussion started
in January, when he endorsed Clark for president and called the
president a 'deserter.' The White House responded by releasing
the president's service records, including an honorable discharge.
James Rainey, "Who's the Man? They Are; George Bush and John
Kerry Stand Shoulder to Shoulder in One Respect: Macho is Good.
Very Good. It's Been That Way Since Jefferson's Day," Los
Angeles Times, March 18, 2004.
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: There is one glaring
difference between the records released in 2000 and those he released
in 2004. A name had been blacked out. In 1972, two airmen were
suspended for failing to take their medical examination. One
was George W. Bush and the other wasJames R. Bath.
o See National Guard Bureau, Aeronautical Orders Number 87,
September 29, 1972, Attachment B, paragraph 7 (original document):
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: James R. Bath was the
Texas money manager for the Bin Laden family.
o See Notarized Trust Agreement, Harris County, Texas, signed
by Salem M. Binladen, July 8, 1976 (original document), Attachment
C ("I, Salem M. Binladen, do hereby vest unto James Reynolds
Bath, 2330 Bellefontaine, Houston, Texas, full and absolute authority
to act on my behalf in all matters relating to the business and
operation of Binladen-Houston offices in Houston, Texas."
Notarized Trust Agreement, Harris County, Texas, July 8, 1976.
o "According to a 1976 trust agreement, drawn shortly
after [George H. W.] Bush was appointed director of the Central
Intelligence Agency, Saudi Sheik Salem M. Binladen appointed Bath
as his business representative in Houston. Binladen, along with
his brothers, owns Binladen Brothers Construction, one of the
largest construction companies in the Middle East." Jerry
Urban, "Feds Investigate Entrepreneur Allegedly Tied to Saudis,"
Houston Chronicle, June 4, 1992.
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: George W. Bush and James
R. Bath had become good friends.
o "Bath, 55, acknowledges a friendship with George W.
Bush that stems from their service together in the Texas Air National
Guard." Jonathan Beaty, "A Mysterious Mover of Money
and Planes," Time Magazine, October 28, 1991.
o "In a copy of the record released by the National Guard
in 2000, the man in question, James R. Bath, was listed as being
suspended from flying for the National Guard in 1972 for failing
to take a medical exam next to a similar listing for Mr. Bush.
It has been widely reported that the two were friends and that
Mr. Bath invested in Mr. Bush's first major business venture,
Arbusto Energy, in the late 1970's after Mr. Bath began working
for Salem bin Laden." Jim Rutenberg, "A Film to Polarize
Along Party Lines," New York Times, May 17, 2004.
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: "After they were
discharged, when Bush's dad was head of the CIA, Bath opened up
his own aviation business, after selling a plane to a man by the
name of Salem bin Laden, heir to the second largest fortune in
Saudi Arabia, the Saudi bin Laden Group."
o "Bath opened his own aircraft brokerage firm in 1976."
Jonathan Beaty, "A Mysterious Mover of Money and Planes,"
Time Magazine, October 28, 1991. (Bush was CIA director, 1976-1977.)
o "Sometime around 1974 Bath was trying to sell a F-27
turboprop, a sluggish medium-range plane that was not exactly
a hot ticket in those days, when he received a phone call that
changed his life. The voice no the other end belonged to Salem
bin Laden Bath not only had a buyer for a plane no one else seemed
to want, he had also stumbled upon a source of wealth and power
that was certain to pique the interest of even the brashest Texas
oil baron." Craig Unger, House of Bush, House of Saud, pp,19-20
(Scribner: New York, 2004).
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: "George W. Bush
founded an oil company, a drilling company, out in west Texas
called Arbusto, which was very good at drilling dry holes."
o "After graduating from the Harvard Business School,
Bush organized his first company, Arbusto Energy (Arbusto is Spanish
for Bush) in 1977 on the eve of a run for Congress. According
to records on file with the Securities and Exchange Commission,
Arbusto didn't start active operations until March 1979. According
to 1984 securities filings, Bush's limited partners had invested
$4.66 million in Bush's various drilling programs but they had
received cash distributions of only $1.54 million. However, Bush's
CFO stated, 'We didn't find much oil and gas,' adding 'We weren't
raising any money.' George Lardner Jr. and Lois Romano, "Bush
Name Helps Fuel Oil Dealings," Washington Post, July 30,
o "Bush eventually renamed his company Bush Exploration
and later merged with a firm called Spectrum 7. Documents filed
with the Securities and Exchange Commission show that the firm
lost money from 1979 to 1982 and that investors who put in nearly
$4.7 million got back just $1.5 million. Published reports contend
that Bush Exploration was salvaged by Cincinnati oilmen Bill DeWitt
and Mercer Reynolds. Bush today says otherwise, that his company
was on firm financial footing and that the merger was a strategic
one. Either way, George W. drilled his fair share of dry holes.
As Conaway rues to this day, the company 'never hit . . . the
Big Kahuna.'" Maria La Ganga, "Bush Finesses Texas 2-Step
Of Privilege, Personality," Los Angeles Times, March 2, 2000.
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: "There is no indication
that daddy wrote a check to start Bush off in his company."
o "Seed money, upward of $4 million, was largely raised
between 1979 and 1982 with the help of [Bush's] uncle, financier
Jonathan Bush. The Arbusto investor list is filled with family
and famous friends. His grandmother, Dorothy W. Bush, chipped
in $25,000. Corporate luminaries like George L. Ball, chief executive
of Prudential-Bache Securities, invested $100,000. Macomber and
William H. Draper III, who invested more than $125,000, were later
named presidents of the U.S. Export-Import Bank during the Reagan
and Bush administrations." Maria La Ganga, "Bush Finesses
Texas 2-Step Of Privilege, Personality," Los Angeles Times,
March 2, 2000.
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: "Bush's good friend
James Bath was hired by the bin Laden family to manage their money
in Texas and invest in businesses. And James Bath himself, in
turn, invested in George W. Bush."
o See Notarized Trust Agreement, Harris County, Texas, signed
by Salem M. Binladen, July 8, 1976 (original document), Attachment
C ("I, Salem M. Binladen, do hereby vest unto James Reynolds
Bath, 2330 Bellefontaine, Houston, Texas, full and absolute authority
to act on my behalf in all matters relating to the business and
operation of Binladen-Houston offices in Houston, Texas."
Notarized Trust Agreement, Harris County, Texas, July 8, 1976.
o See 1981 Schedule 4 spreadsheet showing $50,000 investment
by James Bath in George W. Bush's Arbusto Exploration, Attachment
D (original document).
o Bath's business relationship with Salem bin Laden, and other
wealthy Saudi businessmen, has been well documented. See, e.g.,
Mike Ward, "Bin Laden Relatives Have Ties to Texas,"
Austin American-Statesman, November 9, 2001; Jerry Urban, "Feds
Investigate Entrepreneur Allegedly Tied to Saudis," Houston
Chronicle, June 4, 1992; Thomas Petzinger Jr., et al., "Family
Ties: How Oil Firm Linked to a Son of Bush Won Bahrain Drilling
Pact," The Wall Street Journal, December 6, 1991.
o "[E]arly 1980s tax records reviewed by TIME show that
Bath invested $50,000 in Bush's energy ventures and remained a
stockholder until Bush sold his company to Harken in 1986."
Jonathan Beaty, "A Mysterious Mover of Money and Planes,"
Time Magazine, October 28, 1991.
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: "Bush ran Arbusto
nearly into the ground, as he did every other company he was involved
in until finally one of his companies was bought by Harken Energy
and they gave him a seat on their board."
o "Bush's name was to help rescue him, just as it had
attracted investors and helped revive his flagging fortunes throughout
his years in the dusty plains city of Midland. A big Dallas-based
firm, Harken Oil and Gas, was looking to buy up troubled oil companies.
After finding Spectrum, Harken's executives saw a bonus in their
target's CEO, despite his spotty track record. By the end of
September 1986, the deal was done. Harken assumed $ 3.1 million
in debts and swapped $ 2.2 million of its stock for a company
that was hemorrhaging money, though it had oil and gas reserves
projected to produce $ 4 million in future net revenue. Harken,
a firm that liked to attach itself to stars, had also acquired
Bush, whom it used not as an operating manager but as a high-profile
board member. It was one of the biggest breaks of Bush's life.
Still, the Harken deal completed a disappointing reprise of what
was becoming a familiar pattern. As an oilman, Bush always worked
hard, winning a reputation as a straight-shooter and a good boss
who was witty, warm and immensely likable. Even the investors
who lost money in his ventures remained admirers, and some of
them are now raising money for his presidential campaign. But
the story of Bush's career in oil, which began following his graduation
from Harvard Business School in the summer of 1975 and ended when
he sold out to Harken and headed for Washington, is mostly about
his failure to succeed, despite the sterling connections his lineage
and Ivy League education brought him." George Lardner Jr.
and Lois Romano, "Bush Name Helps Fuel Oil Dealings,"
Washington Post, July 30, 1999.
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: Bush was investigated
by the S.E.C. The James Baker law partner who helped Bush beat
the rap from the SEC was a man by the name of Robert Jordon, who,
when George W. became president was appointed ambassador to Saudi
o "A week before George W. Bush's 1990 sale of stock in
Harken Energy Co., the firm's outside lawyers cautioned Bush and
other directors against selling shares if they had significant
negative information about the company's prospects. The sale
came a few months before Harken reported significant losses, leading
to an investigation by the Securities and Exchange Commission.
The June 15, 1990, letter from the Haynes and Boone law firm
wasn't sent to the SEC by Bush's attorney Robert W. Jordan until
Aug. 22, 1991, according to a letter by Jordan. That was one
day after SEC staff members investigating the stock sale concluded
there was insufficient evidence to recommend an enforcement action
against Bush for insider trading." Peter Behr, "Bush
Sold Stock After Lawyers' Warning," Washington Post, November
o "President Bush has chosen as ambassador to Saudi Arabia
a Dallas attorney who represented him against allegations arising
from his sale of stock in Harken Energy Co. 11 years ago."
G. Robert Hillman, "Bush Taps Dallas Attorney to be Ambassador
to Saudi Arabia," The Dallas Morning News, July 21, 2001.
FAHRENHEIT 9/11: "After the Harken
debacle, the friends of Bush's dad got him a seat on another board,
of a company owned by the Carlyle Group."
o "Fred Malek, a senior advisor to Carlyle, who also served
as the director of the 1988 Republican Convention, suggested to
Carlyle that the President's eldest son, George W. Bush, would
'be a positive addition to Caterair's board.' Mr. Malek was also
a Caterair director and vice chairman of Northwest Airlines, a
major Caterair customer. 'I thought George W. Bush could make
a contribution to Caterair,' stated Malek. Malek further claimed,
'He would be on the board even if his father weren't President.'"
Kenneth N. Gilpin, "Little-Known Carlyle Scores Big,"
New York Times, March 26, 1991
o Co-Founder of Carlyle Group, David Rubenstein, talking about
setting up Cater Air after Carlyle acquired it: "When we're
putting together the board," Rubenstein said, 'somebody came
to me and said 'Look, there is a guy who would like to be on the
board. He's kind of down on his luck a bit. Needs a job. Needs
some board positions. Could you put him on the board? Pay him
a salary and he'll be a good board member and be a loyal vote
for the management and so forth.' We put him on the board and
(he) spent three years. Came to all the meetings. And after
a while I kind of said to him, after about three years - 'You
know, I'm not sure this is really for you. Maybe you should do
something else. Because I don't think you're adding much value
to the board. You don't know that much about the company.' The
board member told him, Rubenstein said, 'Well I think I'm getting
out of this business anyway. I don't really like it that much.
So I'm probably going to resign from the board.' And I said, 'Thanks.'
Didn't think I'd ever see him again. His name is George W. Bush,'
Rubenstein said. 'He became president of the United States. So
if you said to me, name 25 million people who would be president
of the United States, he wouldn't be in that category. So you
neverknow." Nicholas Horrock, "White House Watch: With
Friends Like These," UPI, July 16, 2003 .