Be a Patriot (in El Salvador)
and Kill a Priest
excerpted from the book
Cry of the People
The struggle for human rights
in Latin America
and the Catholic Church in conflict with US policy
by Penny Lernoux
Penguin Books, 1980, paper
"When they took us to a Jeep outside the church, I counted
I forty-five soldiers with machine guns," Carranza continued.
"There were tanks and helicopters, too. The whole city was
under siege. Shots here and there, soldiers ransacking the houses,
breaking down the doors if there was any resistance. We three
priests were taken to a police station in San Salvador, where
we soon heard the beatings and cries of peasants as they were
thrown into the jail. Although we were blindfolded, we knew they
were bringing in all the furniture and belongings of our parish
house. We later learned that they destroyed everything and that
the church is now a barracks."
"Operation Rutilio," as the
military called the May 1977 siege, was swift and brutal. Within
an hour of the dawn attack two thousand government troops had
cut off the town's electricity and occupied the school, the railroad,
the gas station, and the church. Then the killing began. The armed
forces and the police, using tanks, aircraft, and tear gas, sealed
off a five-hundred-square-mile area, and every house was searched.
The exact death toll is not known, but Church sources estimate
that three hundred and fifty to four hundred people were gunned
down, most of them unarmed peasants. Carranza and the other priests
were taken to the Guatemalan border and expelled, their crime
being that they had supported landless people in their efforts
to organize a union, the worst offense that can be committed in
El Salvador, or so think the military regime and the large landowners
who control the government. Peasants are not supposed to talk
back in a feudal society, and in El Salvador "the peasants
live like serfs in Europe four hundred years ago," said a
The most densely populated, most undernourished
country in Central America, with nearly five million people in
an area the size of Massachusetts, El Salvador is a microcosm
of Latin America's social and political ills. Ninety percent of
the peasants have no land, and they comprise two thirds of the
population. Two percent of the people own 58 percent of the arable
land. The average monthly income of the peasant families, 50 percent
of them illiterate, is twelve dollars. Four fifths of the children
are ill-nourished. Unemployment and underemployment total 45 percent.
Ever since commercial coffee growing came
to the country in the nineteenth century, the large growers have
been progressive}y squeezing the peasants off their communal lands.
With no virgin land to exploit and an annual birth rate of 3.5
percent, El Satvador's desperate peasant population rose up-and
was slaughtered-time and again; in 1932 President Maximiliano
Hernandez' government killed thirty thousand of them. The "green
revolution's" agricultural advances hastened the land accumulation,
and thousands more were driven from their tiny plots by large
cotton, sugar, and coffee estates. `'Coffee eats men!" became
the anguished cry of the starving peasants.
None of this mattered to the country's coffee oligarchy, supreme
in its assurance of power and wealth. The "fourteen families,"
sons and grandsons of earlier dictators who had confiscated the
communat lands of the peasants, continue to live in splendor,
with mansions in San Salvador, lakeside chalets in the mountains,
and colonial ranch houses on their haciendas, each with a permanent
staff of six or seven servants. San Benito, the rich, new residentiat
suburb of northern San Salvador, is a tropical Beverly Hills with
acres of manicured lawn, orchid gardens, swimming pools, and marble
palaces stuffed with crystal chandeliers, European art, and imported
A spurious republic with sham elections and a sham Constitution,
El Salvador has always been governed by a privileged clique. (There
have been only nine months of real democratic rule since 1931.)
The current landowning-military coalition, known as the Nationat
Concitiation Party (PCN), dates from 1961, when a reform-minded
junta was overthrown by military hard-liners with the blessing
of the U.S. military mission.
"I greatly fear that very soon the Bible and the Gospel will
not be allowed within the confines of our country. Only the buildings
will arrive, nothing else, because all the pages are subversive-
they are against sin. And if Jesus were to cross the border .
. . they would arrest him. They would take him to many courts
and accuse him of being unconstitutional and subversive, a revolutionary,
a foreign Jew, a concocter of strange and bizarre ideas contrary
to democracy, that is to say, against the minority. They would
crucify him again, because they prefer a Christ of the sacristy
or the cemetery, a silent Christ with a muzzle on his mouth, a
Christ made to our image and according to our selfish interests.
Multinational Skulduggery in Central America
Franklin D. Roosevelt
"Somoza may be a son-of-a-bitch, but he's our son-of-a-bitch."
The largest nation in Central America, with only 2.2 million people
living in an area about the size of England and Wales combined,
Nicaragua does not have the population pressures of El Salvador.
But like its neighbor, it harbored a small group of greedy people.
Half the arable land was occupied by 1,800 ranches, with 96,000
small farms crowded onto the remainder. Another 200,000 peasants
had no land. During Somoza's presidency, the Somoza family alone
owned 8,260 square miles, or more than 5 million acres, an area
approximately the size of El Salvador. (The Somozas controlled
an equally disproportionate share of the country's industry; they
owned Nicaragua's twenty-six biggest companies.)
A rural teacher in Nicaragua in the 1970s, whose school had been
closed by the National Guard
"Teaching people to think is the
worst crime you can commit under the Somoza government."
Ex-President Somoza's father, Anastasio, Sr., who founded the
family dynasty in 1936
"I don't want educated people. I
"We cannot sit with our arms crossed in our convents."
While conditions had been considerably
better in Managua than in Zelaya, the atmosphere there was as
oppressive. As in Stroessner's Paraguay, the Somoza regime employed
an efficient network of spies, including telephone operators,
waiters, taxi drivers, and the corner grocer. Such "troublemakers"
as the Capuchins and the Cardenal brothers were listed in a government
directory supplied to the police and immigration authorities.
Among the prominent Nicaraguans on this backlist was Arch bishop
Miguel Obando y Bravo, a short, rotund prelate with the half-caste
features of his people, whom the government press liked to bait
as "that uneducated Indian." Although Obando spoke carefully
in public, it was no secret that he opposed the regime. Indeed,
his first act as archbishop was to return Somoza's gift of a Mercedes-Benz.
(Somoza controlled the Mercedes-Benz agency.) For thus refusing
to become indebted to Somoza, the archbishop was threatened with
a "car accident" of the sort that killed another progressive
Latin-American bishop. His house was ransacked by security agents,
and his weekly radio program was censored. Nevertheless, Obando
joined the country's other bishops in publicly upholding the Capuchins'
denunciations of peasant massacres in Zelaya with a strongly worded
statement against "arbitrary detentions, torture, rape, and
executions without previous trial."
Jesuit Fernando Cardenal was similarly
abused for testifying on Nicaragua's violation of human rights
before the U. S. House Subcommittee on International Organizations.
The government press described him as a "pervert" and
"mental incompetent"; Cornelio Hueck, president of the
Somoza -dominated Congress, threatened to try him for treason,
and the National University of Nicaragua, where Cardenal taught
philosophy, was pressured to dismiss him. Because of media censorship,
Cardenal could answer none of the accusations made against him.
His telephone was tapped, his letters opened. The Jesuit was not
jailed-or murdered-only because Donald Fraser, chairman of the
House subcommittee, told the State Department that the U. S. Congress
would hold the Somoza government responsible if any harm came
Fernando's brother, the poet Ernesto,
was also threatened with charges of treason for denouncing the
Somoza government's misuse of AID funds, an accusation backed
up by the General Accounting Office in Washington. After Ernesto
Cardenal gave a speech in Washington early in 1977, the Somoza
newspaper Novedades ran a crude cartoon depicting him as a dirty
hippie. Cardenal was a dangerous enemy because of his highly respected
writings, including The Gospel in Solentiname, a series of dialogues
with the peasants of the Solentiname Archipelago in Lake Nicaragua,
based on Medellin's consciousness-raising techniques in reading
the Bible. Solentiname is generally agreed to be one of the most
damning denunciations of the Somoza dynasty ever printed.
Though less spectacular, government harassment
of other priests and nuns was equally unpleasant. After the 1972
earthquake leveled Managua, a number of religious orders moved
to the slums instead of rebuilding their schools for the rich,
but even the well-to-do Catholic schools that remained placed
increasing emphasis on the sort of "liberating education"
that searches out the whys and wherefores of injustice and poverty.
Since this went against the Somoza preference for "uneducated
oxen," the government, in addition to banning courses in
philosophy, logic, psychology, and sociology, burdened these Catholic
institutions with endless red tape, arbitrary orders to dismiss
teachers, and threats of closure.
Priests and nuns involved in social work
in the Managua slums were automatically on the government's blacklist,
since attempts to teach the poor their legal rights were judged
subversive. Maryknoll nuns in the slum of Open, for example, were
persistently badgered because they supported the thirty-five thousand
inhabitants in a protest against the high price for water imposed
by Managua's privately owned water company. A parched, dusty shantytown
on the capital's outskirts, Open is so poor that its inhabitants
lack even a cemetery in which to bury their dead, yet they were
paying water rates double those levied on Managua's wealthy suburbs
until a peaceful demonstration by one thousand Open inhabitants
forced the water company to lower its rates.
Like their Capuchin counterparts in Zelaya,
the Maryknoll sisters live with the people, sharing their deprivations,
problems, and aspirations. The nuns' tiny house is on the corner
of a dusty dirt road in the heart of the slum, their only concession
to luxury a battered pickup truck used to transport the people
to religious meetings or to a school or hospital in the city.
(Open's "health centers" have neither the medicine nor
the facilities to treat the people.) Known as the "Peggys"
because both are so named, the two resident nuns run a dawn-to-midnight
program of community meetings, religious education, civic action
projects, and conferences with Maryknoll sisters from outlying
regions. Slender, pretty young women dressed in sandals and cotton
dresses, they are welcomed everywhere in Open, good examples of
the men and women who believe that the religious life in Latin
America "has never been richer." There is no whining
about poor living conditions or hard work, no nit-picking over
theology, sex, or whether the Mass should be said in Latin or
Spanish, because the issues these nuns face are so much more immediate-hunger,
sickness, misery, and death. "I would have gone home a long
time ago," said Sister Peggy Healy, "were it not for
the Christian testimony of these poor people. No matter how much
they are beaten down every day, they refuse to give up."
... in January 1978, Pedro Joaquin Chamorro, publisher of the
opposition newspaper La Prensa, was killed by assassins. A national
figure renowned for his unremitting criticism of government corruption
and repression, the fifty-three-year-old Chamorro was the leader
of a center-left coalition, the Democratic Liberation Union, which
included representatives of three political parties and two labor
federations. He was a strong contender for the presidency, not
only as a well-known newspaper crusader but also as one of the
few men of his generation who were never compromised by the Somoza
family. As a colleague remarked, in describing the outspoken publisher's
frequent stints in jail and exile, Chamorro refused to give up,
whereas most Nicaraguans of his age had long since tired of fighting
the dictatorship. "Imagine living under the Pinochet junta
in Chile for forty-two years, and you have some idea of what it
is like in Nicaragua," said a university professor.
According to conservative estimates, some
thirty thousand Nicaraguans died in the four decades prior to
the 1978-79 civil war for opposing the government of Anastasio
Somoza and his sons Luis and Anastasio II. Those who survived,
including the sons and daughters of the Nicaraguan aristocracy,
were either bought off, forced into exile, or caught up in the
economic vise of the Somoza family, which dominated Nicaragua's
industry, agriculture, and banks. To silence Chamorro, the president
of Somoza's rubber-stamp Congress had threatened him with bankruptcy
by demanding damages worth the approximate value of La Prensa
on a trumped-up libel charge. But Chamorro wasn't frightened.
"I will continue to fight no matter what happens," he
His last editorial campaign was directed
against a Managua blood-export firm called Plasmaferesis, controlled
jointly by Somoza and exiled Cubans, and Somoza tried to pin the
assassination on his erstwhile Cuban partner, the director of
the company, who was supposed to have masterminded the killing
from Miami. It was a story that only the government accepted.
The ill-advised murder of the popular
newspaperman set off a wave of violent opposition that shook the
Somoza dynasty to its foundations. Family panic had already set
in when a sudden upsurge of guerrilla warfare in the fall of 1977
coincided with the discovery that Anastasio II had a serious heart
condition. Nevertheless, the ailing strongman was determined to
assure the succession of his son, Anastasio III, who had taken
over many of his father's duties. Thus, when the business community
protested Chamorro's murder with a two-week general strike, Somoza
responded by ordering the National Guard to bomb, burn, rape,
and pillage cities and villages. At least 350 peasant families
were killed in the department of Chontales in the first two months
of 1978, according to the department's Bishop Pablo Vega, who
said the National Guard had used helicopters to massacre the people
and bomb the houses. The Indian quarter of Monimbo, near Managua,
was stormed by eight hundred National Guardsmen in tanks, armored
cars, and helicopter gunships. The toll there will never be known
because the Nahoas Indians buried their dead and hid the wounded
in the hills behind the town, but Red Cross and Church sources
estimated at least thirty dead and hundreds wounded. Others put
the number of dead at over four hundred. The cities of Leon, Diriamba,
and Matagalpa were also severely attacked.
As often happens in such repressive situations,
increasing numbers of Nicaraguans turned to the Sandinista guerrillas
as the only organization with a hope to overthrow the Somoza dictatorship.
Such was the anger against the regime in the months following
Chamorro's assassination that a number of prominent businessmen
publicly sided with the guerrillas. They included landowners,
corporate lawyers, bankers, the owner of one of the largest chains
of supermarkets in Managua, and the former treasurer of the Managua
Chamber of Commerce. Even Alfredo Pellas, the richest non-Somoza
in Nicaragua, urged the strongman to resign. "Many of my
fellow countrymen now believe that the only way out of this situation
is with a gun," said the secretary general of Nicaragua's
Conservative Party. "Private enterprise and workers are united
in saying, 'No more Somoza!"' Somoza's promises of reform
and dialogue fooled no one-the family had broken too many promises
in the past. Pedro Chamorro, the only man of sufficient reputation
and political support to have conducted a dialogue on equal terms,
was dead-killed, most people thought, by Somoza's own men.
One of the few who still believed in the
possibility of dialogue, and in Somoza's promise to step down
in 1981, was Terence Todman, the State Department's Under Secretary
for Inter-American Affairs. Despite the ongoing massacres, he
insisted that the human rights situation in Nicaragua had substantially
improved. There were good reasons for Todman's inability to recognize
facts: while the Carter administration had made known its displeasure
at Somoza's heavy-handed way with opponents, it would hardly do
for a left-wing guerrilla movement to seize power in Central America.
What nobody wanted to admit was that the United States was directly
responsible for the popularity of the Sandinista guerrillas. Had
it not been for Washington's many years of economic and military
support of the Somozas, it is unlikely that conditions in Nicaragua
would have reached the point where conservative businessmen were
willing to treat with guerrillas. Or as Ernesto Cardenal put it:
"Fortunately for us, the United States has never learned
the lesson that in supporting cruel and corrupt dictatorships,
it only radicalizes the population, causing the very thing it
does not want-socialist governments."
The first and fatal mistake was made long
ago, in the 1920s, when U. S. Marines attempted to put down a
peasant uprising led by Augusto Sandino, a popular leader and
the namesake of the current guerrilla front. Anastasio Somoza
I was named to head the Army-police force. He used his position
to seize the presidency in 1936 and to murder Sandino by first
promising amnesty for a conference and then promptly killing everyone
who took him at his word. That was a long time ago, but, incredibly,
the United States' relationship with the Somozas survived unaltered
into modern times. Washington continued to prop up the dictatorship
with loans. The Pentagon created, trained, and armed the National
Guard, and nearly all Guard officers spent their last year of
training in U.S. schools in the Panama Canal Zone. (One of Somoza's
chief police advisers, Gunther Wagner, was the former head of
AID's police training program in Nicaragua.
During the 1960s and '70s, the Somoza
family regularly cried wolf at congressional aid hearings, falsely
claiming that such assistance was needed to fight off a Castro-financed
guerrilla invasion. Although there were periodic flare-ups, just
as there had been in the thirties, forties, and fifties, guerrilla
forces never seriously threatened the government, and even as
late as 1976 the Sandinista guerrillas numbered no more than fifty
militants. The money, the training, and the arms received from
the United States were used for something quite different: to
repress the poor people in the slums and rural areas by imprisonment,
torture, and death. Very few peasants in the department of Zelaya,
for example, wanted any truck with the Sandinista guerrillas,
but when thousands of unoffending people are repeatedly hounded
from their homes, when their families are tortured and murdered,
when their land and goods are seized, they eventually turn to
the other side, because, as Ernesto Cardenal said, there is no
choice. So one day the wolf did finally appear: the phantom threat
of a guerrilla uprising that the Somozas had used to keep Nicaraguans
in bondage for so long had become a reality by 1978. But neither
communism nor Fidel Castro had anything to do with the [Sandinista]
guerrillas' success. It was Somoza's own doing with the loyal
help of the United States.
Anyone who studies the history of repression
and corruption in Nicaragua will see the obvious parallels with
Batista's Cuba prior to Castro's successful revolution. The wonder
is that nobody in Washington seems to have bothered with history.
By the time of the September 1978 uprising,
when several thousand young insurrectionists seized five of the
country's largest cities, a majority of Nicaraguans were openly
demanding Somoza's resignation. Ten days later, after the insurrection
had been (temporarily) put down at the cost of enormous-and unnecessary-suffering,
there was "not a decent person left who is not against Somoza,"
in the words of a Nicaraguan lawyer. "Everyone is cooperating
with the guerrillas. He can only stop the killing by resigning-or
by killing all Nicaraguans.''
Eyewitness accounts of the slaughter by
the National Guard suggest that Somoza was prepared to do just
that. The Red Cross reported at least five thousand dead, ten
thousand missing, over fifteen thousand injured, and twenty-five
If the Nicaraguan people ever forgive the United States for foisting
the Somoza family on them, it will be because of Americans like
the Sisters Peggy and the Capuchins, whose only motivation is
a Christian concern for the poor in Open and Zelaya. Unfortunately,
the same cannot be said of the U.S. congressmen who, despite ample
evidence of corruption and repression, continued to support a
dictatorship set up by the State Department more than forty years
... in Washington money and influence count more than proof of
corruption and repression. No one should be surprised to learn,
then, that the Nicaraguan word for a Somoza bootlicker is "gringo."
As in most of Central America, Honduras is divided between: wealthy
few who own the majority of the land and 2 million peasants who
own little or no land. Again, it is a question not of too little
acreage to go around but of violence and greed: with a population
of only 2.9 million in an area nearly the size of Pennsylvania,
there is no reason why 23,000 peasant families should starve to
death for lack of an acre to plant. But that sort of simple mathematics
plays no part in the thinking of the Honduran Government.
The principal difference between Honduras
and the other Central American countries is the high degree of
political organization of its peasant unions, and for this United
Fruit must be thanked. Over the years, conditions on United Fruit's
Atlantic Coast banana plantations became so bad that they eventually
produced a militant labor movement. The company then employed
armed bands to intimidate striking workers, and company planes
flew kidnapped union leaders to neighboring El Salvador, where
they were dumped. United Fruit thugs took their machetes to the
small growers' banana shipments as they lay on railroad platforms.
Conditions were not much better on the plantations of United Fruit's
principal rival, Standard Fruit. Workers were paid an average
seventy-five cents a day and had no right to vacations, medical
care, or redress from arbitrary dismissal.
That was until the historic strike of
forty thousand workers in 1959, which lasted seventy days despite
various deaths and massive arrests of union leaders. All through
that terrible period, peasants in the surrounding countryside
supported the banana workers, sharing their small portion of beans
and bananas with laborers who otherwise would have starved. The
banana workers never forgot this solidarity, and it was due to
them that the peasants organized their first labor federations.
The other major impulse toward peasant
organization came from the Catholic Church and the young technicians
of Venezuela's Social Christian Party (the Venezuelan version
of Chile's Christian Democrats), who laid the foundations for
a vast network of rural radio schools, peasant training centers,
and cooperatives that later came under the umbrella of the Council
for Coordinated Development (CONCORDE), financed by various European
and U.S. Christian organizations. But while CONCORDE's activities
spawned three different peasant federations with a combined membership
of 140,000, it could never solve the basic problem of land distribution.
The people knew their legal rights but were repeatedly balked
by the country's military regimes which, while they were quick
to make promises, and even passed an agrarian reform law in 1974,
did nothing to alter the pattern of land tenancy because of the
militant opposition of the cattle ranchers and plantation owners.
The frustrations caused by this run-around came to a head when
twenty thousand peasants marched on Tegucigalpa in 1972. with
the usual massacres by the Army and police.
Honduran Lieutenant Colonel Mario Maldonado
"Agrarian reform is not communist.
It is opposed simply because it affects the traditional privileges
of the few wealthy people."
of the People