Willy Peter (white phosphorus
by Danny Mayer
Z magazine, January 2006
The U.S. is again using white phosphorus,
a chemical munition known more commonly in the
military as Willy Peter.
White phosphorus is a chemical weapon
with two different uses. In its "conventional" use as
tool of war, white phosphorus provides illumination and smoke
cover for soldiers in combat.
During the battle of Fallujah in November 2004, the United States
used white phosphorus in
"shake and bake" missions to flush out insurgent positions.
Such use potentially violates the
Geneva Convention on Biological and Chemical Weapons of 1980 banning
the use of incendiary
weapons in civilian areas. (The U.S. has yet to sign this part
of the Convention.)
While the Pentagon initially denied using
white phosphorus in any capacity other than as an
illumination round, reports from embedded U.S. journalists and
a March 2005 Field Artillery
magazine article published by the U.S. military said just the
opposite. These two sources, coupled with Italian media and eyewitness
accounts of civilians in Fallujah burned to
the bone, forced the Pentagon to change from suggesting purity
of motive ("we don't use napalm
or chemical weapons") to a more nuanced and legalistic terminology.
Now, it seems, white
phosphorus was "used as an incendiary weapon against enemy
Because the U. S. is not a signatory to
the 1980 Geneva Convention and has challenged the legal
definition of chemical weapons, the Pentagon now claims that white
phosphorus is "not a
chemical weapon" and therefore "not outlawed or illegal."
For the Pentagon, at least, the "shake
and bake" missions are a "potent psychological weapon"
that will drive the enemy "out of their holes." The
use of white phosphorus has a particularly brutal history. During
the war in Vietnam, the U.S. used white
phosphorous as an improved form of napalm, terrorizing enemies.
Then, as now, it was touted
as a psychological tool of warfare necessary to subdue enemy hamlets.
Unlike napalm, which in Vietnam left villagers
and enemies alike with massive burns all over
their bodies, white phosphorus burns down to the bone.
Le The Thrung, a Vietnamese doctor studying
white phosphorus burns in 1969, describes its
effects on the skin: "[b]urning phosphorus produces 800-1,000
degrees centigrade heat.
Scattered phosphorus particles go on consuming themselves and
deepen burn wounds." Next,
chemical compounds "create a chemical burn, like an acid,
drawing water from the cells. This process generates great pain
in the nervous system." Finally, white phosphorus compounds
oxygenate and penetrate "the blood stream and white blood
cells in the dermis, subdermis, and deeper skin layers."
This creates what he calls an "organic toxicity [that] blocks
off all blood circulation with the burn area."
It wasn't just medical professionals noting
the brutal effects of white phosphorus. A U.S serviceperson, at
the height of the Vietnam War, remarked, "We sure are pleased
with those backroom boys at Dow. The original product wasn't so
hot-if the gooks were quick they could scrape it off. So the boys
started adding polystyrene-now it sticks like shit to a blanket.
But then if the gooks jumped under water it stopped burning, so
they started adding Willy Peter so's to make it burn better. It'll
even burn under water now. And one drop is enough; it'll keep
on burning right down to the bone so they die anyway from phosphorus
This is what our military and political
leaders currently define as a "potent psychological weapon?"
These are the actions that citizens of empire are to support and
legitimize, even if tacitly, in the name of spreading democracy
and securing our own nebulous borders?
No, this is not about our national feelings
of moral fortitude. This is about civilians and "enemies"
alike having chemicals dropped on them like rain and their skin
bubbling, melting, wasting away with no way to scrape off the
pain of oxidizing phosphorus and no way to cauterize the slow,
painful melting into the nervous system and bloodstream. No, for
those getting "smoked out of their holes," there is
very little, if anything, psychological about Willy Peter.
Danny Mayer is a PhD student at the University
War Crimes & Criminals