Full Nets -- Empty Seas
By David Helvarg
The Progressive magazine, November 1997
At sea, you can smell the odor for hours. When you're about
seven miles away, a broad sheen of fish oil appears on the ocean
surface. Clouds of seabirds hover above the source of the slick:
factory trawlers that pull tons of fish out of the water, then
process the catch.
Using sonar-directed nets with mouths wide enough to snare
several 747 jumbo jets, the factory trawlers bring in up to 300,000
pounds at a time. In the Bering Sea off Alaska and Russia, the
boats fish pollock. In the waters off Asia and Latin America,
they pursue yellowfin, halibut, whiting, and other commercial
species. They also haul up "non-target species"- crabs,
sunfish, sharks, squid, and seals- which the ships chop up and
flush over board. Some 75 million pounds of this so-called by-catch
are wasted each year on the North Pacific fishing grounds alone.
Super-trawlers are the latest threat to fisheries throughout
the oceans, which are already in crisis. The oceans have long
maintained a fecundity unmatched on land. In the 1980s, the oceans
yielded as much as l00 million metric tons for human consumption-almost
a third of the animal protein we consume.
But since 1990 the world's fish catch has been falling as
the number of commercial fishing boats has climbed. The United
Nation's Food and Agriculture Organization reports that 70 percent
of the world's commercial fish species are now fully exploited,
overexploited, or depleted. Once abundant species like cod, shark,
and tuna are in sharp decline, with bluefin tuna now listed as
an endangered species.
About sixty factory trawlers now fish the waters off the West
Coast of the United States. One is the American Triumph, whose
below-deck production line can push more than 150 fish per minute
through its filleting, mincing, washing, drying, mixing, and freezing
machinery, turning pollock into fillet blocks and surimi, a fish
product popular in Asia. The fillet blocks are used in the United
States for frozen fish-sticks, fish and chips, and fast-food sandwiches.
After the trawler's multinational crew fills its freezers
with 1,000 tons of fish, the ship will offload its catch at sea
onto tramp steamers headed for Asia. When it has finished its
at-sea operations, it brings a huge, fishy cargo to port in the
But the American Triumph is not the pride of its fleet. That
honor belongs to the American Monarch, a $65 million super trawler,
based in Seattle, home port to a U.S. factory fleet that didn't
exist ten years ago. At 31 ] feet in length, the Monarch is the
highest-capacity fishing boat in history. It can net and process
about one million pounds of fish per day. Its owner, American
Seafoods, the same company that owns American Triumph, is a U.S.
subsidiary of Resources Group International (RGI), a Norwegian
firm that plans to build twenty-four additional super trawlers
for its already extensive fleet. With annual earnings of more
than $1 billion, RGI controls 10 percent of the global whitefish
market and 40 percent of the U.S. pollock quota in the Bering
But the American Monarch has not had smooth sailing. Since
last fall, it has been turned away from Chile, Peru, and the Falklands
by a coalition of local fishermen, concerned governments, and
environmentalists. Earlier this year, Greenpeace raided the Monarch
and hung a banner off its superstructure that called for the abolition
of factory trawlers. On August 7, Greenpeace climbers hung off
Aurora bridge in Seattle, blockading two other American Seafood
factory trawlers for three days.
"These ships are literally designed to overfish the world's
seas, to deplete one fishery, and then move on to another ocean,"
says Fred Munson, Greenpeace's fisheries campaigner in the Northwest.
In May, a Chilean court upheld a decision to deny the Monarch
the right to operate in Chile's waters. The Chilean government
was afraid the factory trawler would wipe out its commercial stocks
Because the American Monarch was built in Norway and U.S.
law says that at least the hulls of fishing boats have to be built
domestically it they are to be considered U S. ships, the United
States may not allow the Monarch, to participate in the $2 billion-a-year
fishing bonanza now taking place in U.S. territorial waters off
Since the Russian government has abandoncd any pretense of
maintaining a sustainable fishery, the American Monarch may head
tor the Russian side of the Bering Sea-a popular target for factory
trawlers. Factory-trawler captains have been overheard holding
at-sea radio discussions about which Russian fishing officials
will take bribes. The Russians are legally allowing 40 percent
of their pollock to be caught each year, while the United States
is allowing I8 percent.
But even as the United States complains that the Russians
are overfishing, studies indicate that pollock in U.S. waters
has declined by half over the past decade. There has also been
a rapid drop in the numbers of Steller's sea lions, a species
whose main prey is pollock. Fur seals, horned puffins, murres,
cormorants, and other seabirds that depend on pollock are also
in sharp decline. The U.S. government response to the threat of
factory fishing has been negligible. While representing less than
two tenths of 1 percent of American fishing vessels, factory trawlers
are allowed to collect more than 20 percent of the total U.S.
The 1976 Magnuson Fisheries Conservation Act did ban foreign-registered
factory trawlers from U.S. waters and established eight regional
fisheries councils to manage the resource. Unfortunately, these
measures did little to stop overharvesting. The Magnuson Act exempted
council members from conflict of-interest laws applied to other
federal regulatory agencies. Not surprisingly, the councils quickly
came to be dominated by fishing-industry reps whose philosophy
is, "There's always another fish in the sea."
The Magnuson Act also provided low interest government loans
and fuel subsidies to the fishing industry to expand the fleet,
encouraging the industry to take out loans to expand its catching
capacity through new technologies like satellite search systems
and deep-scan fish-finding sonar.
The results were predictable. By 1992, a vastly expanded and
overcapitalized Atlantic fleet had done what the foreign factory
trawlers had failed to do. The Georges Bank off New England was
over fished to commercial extinction, dead after 500 years as
the most productive fishing grounds on earth.
On the West Coast, Arctic Alaska and other companies used
tens of millions of dollars in federal loans to buy new boats,
including factory trawlers, in the late 1980s.
By 1988, private banks, foreign companies anxious to establish
U.S. subsidiaries, and venture capitalists flush from Reagan era
tax breaks were migrating to the fishing docks like spawning salmon.
In the effort to exploit the rich fisheries off Alaska, safety
standards often went over the side along with the by-catch. Unqualified
and unlicensed captains led teenage crews into some of the worst
sea conditions on Earth. In 1990, an Arctic Alaska trawler accident
cost nine lives and led to criminal indictments of corporate officers.
At the ensuing trial, the officers were acquitted.
Two years later, Tyson Foods, the multi-billion dollar Arkansas
poultry company, bought Arctic Alaska. Tyson's owner, Don Tyson,
has been a longtime political backer of President Clinton. Today
Tyson has thirteen factory trawlers operating off Alaska.
As the world's fisheries collapse, the temptation for fishing
companies to make a quick buck-by ignoring the few effective conservation
rules that do exist-has also increased. Making matters worse,
the government's own corporate-welfare programs often limit attempts
to enforce the law. "We've busted major poachers and then
gotten calls from higher-ups in the National Marine Fisheries
Service," complains a fisheries law-enforcement agent who
asks me not to use his name. "We were told, 'You can't put
that guy out of business. He's fishing for us. He has a government
loan for that boat he has to pay off."'
The National Marine Fisheries Service operates as part of
the Department of Commerce and oversees the fisheries councils.
It is supposed to encourage the councils to practice better conservation.
"We need conservation of the fish stocks, not consolidation
of the industry," says Zeke Grader, head of the Pacific Coast
Federation of Fishermen's Associations, which represents some
3,000 individuals on the West Coast. "But I guess with big
corporations like Tyson, you're guaranteed the campaign contributions
that you might not see from small, moderate income working families."
Fishing communities throughout the United States are now feeling
the full impact of the factory trawlers, with tens of thousands
of people losing their livelihoods. The National Fisherman, an
industry publication, recently observed, "Twenty, even ten,
years ago we could have come up with a rational plan for our fisheries
that would have made sense."
Now hope for the oceans' fisheries- along with the marine
mammals, seabirds, and coastal communities that depend on them-is